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In this YouTube video (link starts video at time of interest), the pilot appears to land in the area marked by the large yellow chevrons, in what appears to me (a layperson) to be a taxi way.

Screenshot of markings in question

What are the meaning of the yellow markings? Under what conditions can a landing be made before this point?

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Those are not chevrons but arrowheads used to mark the start of the runway. So, yes, he did land on the taxiway.

enter image description here

Source: FAA Airfield Standards Quick Reference

He does land slightly before the runway threshold. He even says he is going to land short. Since there was nothing on the taxiway leading to the runway then it seems there is no problem doing that.

enter image description here

screenshot from Google maps of KYKM runway 22 threshold

For comparison, chevrons mark either stopways or blast pads and look like this: enter image description here

same source as first image

They may include an EMAS bed, so touching down there would not be a good idea.

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    $\begingroup$ Are there markings meaning "absolutely no landing here" for some extension at the end of a runway? $\endgroup$ – Steve Jun 2 '17 at 23:06
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    $\begingroup$ I would say that it's not a good idea to land on chevrons, which are a little different from the arrowheads. Chevrons can be on an EMAS bed. You don't want to touch down there as it can damage the EMAS and likely the plane. Chevrons look like this $\endgroup$ – TomMcW Jun 2 '17 at 23:12
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    $\begingroup$ This is a good answer, the pilot in the video showed poor judgment landing there, and then posting it for the whole world to see. $\endgroup$ – GdD Jun 3 '17 at 9:03
  • $\begingroup$ Don't displaced thresholds usually mean that the bearing capacity of the surface with arrows is not high enough to withstand landings from at least some of the planes that land there? $\endgroup$ – user9394 Jun 4 '17 at 2:04
  • $\begingroup$ @BaileyS It can mean that. Displaced thresholds can be used for numerous reasons. Sometimes it is for a blast pad, which is not intended for landing. Sometimes it's there to allow a stopway for the opposite runway which may or may not include an EMAS bed. It can be temporary, for construction. There are regulations as to the heights and distances of obstacles from the end of the runway. If you look at this question it appears the runway was a bit too close to the road. It doesn't necessarily mean it won't hold the weight. $\endgroup$ – TomMcW Jun 4 '17 at 2:15
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Yellow arrowheads before the threshold bar mean you shouldn't land or take off in that area. White arrowheads mean you can roll out from that area, just not land. The displaced threshold is usually there due to obstructions or construction.

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