Is it possible to turn a large jet like the Boeing 747, Airbus A380 or other airliner using only the rudder, i.e. without using the ailerons on the wings? Will it take longer to turn to a new heading? I find the tilting when ailerons (wing flaps) are involved is uncomfortable.
Yes you can, and this is the backup mode for turning the A320 when the Fly By Wire has failed. It is not very comfortable though:
Changing direction using only the rudder creates sideways acceleration, not good for passengers with drinks in front of them
Since the rudder is located above the center of gravity, the aircraft leans the wrong way when rudder only is used, amplifying the sideways acceleration. A ship has the rudder below the center of buoyancy and leans into the turn when rudder is deflected.