Taking FAA/USA as an example.
For north of 78th parallel, FAA operations are conducted in compliance with several regulations, including: FSIMS 8900.1, vol 3, Chapter 18, Section 4 Part B Operations Specifications: OpSpec B055 - North Polar Operations. The alternate airports must be able to receive the passengers of the diverted aircraft and to take care of the "physiological needs of the passengers and flightcrew for the duration until safe evacuation".
B055 requires the operator to demonstrate a recovery plan to extract passengers from a diversion airport prior to conduct commercial passenger operations. While it's the operator responsibility to provide the details, the general requirement answers your question:
A recovery plan is required that will be initiated in the event of an
unplanned diversion. The recovery plan should address the care and
safety of passengers and flightcrew at the diversion airport, and
include the plan of operation to extract the passengers and flightcrew
from that airport.
As the plan should address the care and safety of people at the alternate airport, any protection against low temperature must be provided in order for the plan to be accepted by FAA. The plan must also demonstrate the ability to extract passenger from the airport within, if possible, 12h (which may be a challenge in Arctic region) and at most within 48h.
Extract of B055 (also discussed at PPRuNe, some copy-paste done from here):
Minimum Equipment List (MEL)
Before receiving FAA authority to conduct polar operations, the MEL must indicate that the following systems/equipment is required for
polar operations dispatch:
3) Communication system(s) relied on by the flightcrew to satisfy
the requirement for effective communication capability.
4) Except for all-cargo operations, expanded medical kit to
include Automated External Defibrillators (AED).
Training Program Requirements
The following must be in the approved training programs:
Training on special considerations, such as diversion decision making into austere airport environments to include aircraft
performance, crash, fire, and rescue availability, and passenger
Flightcrew training in the use of the cold weather anti-exposure suit.
Special Flightcrew Issues for Long-Range Operations
The operator needs to address the following special long-range
- A minimum of two cold weather anti-exposure suits will be required to be onboard so that outside coordination at a diversion airport with
extreme climatic conditions can be accomplished safely.
Dispatch and Crewmember Considerations During Solar Flare Activity
- The operator must be aware of the content of AC 120-52, Radiation Exposure of Air Carrier Crewmembers, and provide crewmember training
as stated in AC120-61, Crewmember Training on In-Flight Radiation
En Route Polar Diversion Alternate Airport Requirements
Operators are expected to give definition to a sufficient set of alternate airports for polar diversions, such that one or more can be
reasonably expected to be available in varying weather conditions.
The flight must be able to make a safe landing, and the airplane maneuvered off of the runway at the selected diversion airport. In the
event of a disabled airplane following landing, the capability to move
the disabled airplane must exist so as not to block the operation of
any recovery airplane.
In addition, those airports designated for use must be capable of protecting the safety of all personnel by being able to:
(1) Offload the passengers and flightcrew in a safe manner during
possible adverse weather conditions;
(2) Provide for the physiological needs of the passengers and
flightcrew for the duration until safe evacuation; and
(3) Be able to safely extract passengers and flightcrew as soon as
possible (execution and completion of the recovery is expected within
12 to 48 hours following diversion).
- An FAA-observed validation flight is required in which the operator exercises its reaction and recovery plan in the event of a diversion
to one of its designated en route polar diversion alternate airports.
The exercise of the operator’s reaction and recovery plan may also be
completed prior to the validation flight.