100
$\begingroup$

What (if any) sort of pilot authentication systems do fighter jets have?

Could anyone with the required skills simply take the aircraft or is a key or authorization code required?

$\endgroup$
  • 35
    $\begingroup$ This question brought to you by screenwriters of the next xXx franchise film. $\endgroup$ – DVK Apr 11 '17 at 22:51
  • 8
    $\begingroup$ Based on my extensive research, I'd say that it looks quite hard. $\endgroup$ – Richard Apr 11 '17 at 23:09
  • 6
    $\begingroup$ You really think you want pilots looking for keys when they have to scramble? $\endgroup$ – Loren Pechtel Apr 12 '17 at 5:08
  • 13
    $\begingroup$ Planes, tanks, trains, trams, buses - they usually don't have any keys. If you can get in and know how to operate one, you can do it. Large organizations operating them tend to rely on procedures, not on mechanisms. $\endgroup$ – Agent_L Apr 12 '17 at 8:41
  • 9
    $\begingroup$ I guess I'm a little disappointed by the emphasis a lot of comments/answers are placing on external protections. It's really not new information that military equipment on a military base will be guarded by military personnel. I mean, I have nothing against witty quips, but it seems people actually think someone might be unaware that fighter jets are kept under armed guard. $\endgroup$ – dn3s Apr 13 '17 at 6:54
113
$\begingroup$

Military aircraft rarely have any sort of keys or any sort of authentication systems, they rely on physical security measures to prevent people from getting to the airplanes in the first place, like fences, dogs, cameras, guards, and of course guns.

If there were no physical barriers then you have 3 major barriers to being able to steal a fighter jet:

  1. Support: just about every military fighter aircraft has an assigned crew to prepare it for flight and help the pilot(s) get in it. Without this crew you'd have to get the airplane powered up, fueled up, and then you'd have to figure out how to get into it and get the ladder removed. There's a lot of knowledge you'd need to do all this, just knowing how to open the canopy isn't going to be immediately obvious
  2. Starting: starting up a fighter isn't like starting a car, you don't hit a button and everything happens for you, there's fuel tanks and pumps, hydraulic systems, electrical systems, and engine management. You'd have to know where to find all of the switches, dials and levers, and the sequence in which to use them. This isn't something you'd be able to guess, you'd need knowledge of the particular airplane
  3. Flying: high performance jets are challenging to fly, and by flying I mean aviating, navigating, and communicating. Although modern fighters have a lot of computers to help out with this the systems require a great deal of training to use, and if you don't know exactly what you are doing you are most likely going to dig a big hole in the ground

If you know how to start and fly the airplane there's nothing stopping you from doing it, provided you can solve the problems of prepping and getting in the airplane. In fact, it's been done when pilots defect with their airplanes, see the comments below for some great examples.

$\endgroup$
  • 66
    $\begingroup$ That said, fighter jets are occasionally "stolen", most typically by fighter pilots who defect from their country of origin using said fighter jet as their means of escape. This usually happens during what should otherwise be a normal training exercise, which takes care of the issues of getting access to, starting, and taking off with the aircraft in the first instance. $\endgroup$ – J... Apr 11 '17 at 12:06
  • 15
    $\begingroup$ Slight quibble with #3; many fighters are supposedly quite easy to fly if you fly them straight and level as you would a 737. The difficult part is flying them under combat conditions and using their capabilities effectively, which could be needed if you stole one and were detected by the owners. $\endgroup$ – Eric Hauenstein Apr 11 '17 at 13:16
  • 33
    $\begingroup$ @J... This is my favorite example of a pilot defecting and stealing an airplane. I love it because of what happened when he landed, of course, and totally not because his name makes my inner 13-year old laugh. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/No_Kum-sok $\endgroup$ – Kevin Apr 11 '17 at 13:19
  • 44
    $\begingroup$ I think a very important follow up question would be, "I've stolen a fighter plane. How do I stay alive and not get shot down immediately?" $\endgroup$ – BruceWayne Apr 11 '17 at 15:08
  • 12
    $\begingroup$ "Military aircraft rarely have any sort of keys or any sort of authentication systems" In that case I believe the insurance won't work. It's contributory negligence. $\endgroup$ – mins Apr 11 '17 at 20:08
76
$\begingroup$

I was a pilot attached to Attack Squadron 86 flying A7-E's during the mid-1980's and here is a case where one of our jets was nearly stolen. It is not what you might guess, and as GdD pointed out above, maintenance support nabbed the pilot. To this day I am amazed at the guy's audacity. Don't know what happened to him after this encounter. I was the Officer of the Day when this event occurred.

Our squadron was going through qualifications and we were responsible for providing the aircraft for the referee/spotters on a particular flight. The referee showed up from down the field and checked himself in with maintenance, going through the Aircraft Discrepancy Book. He went out to the aircraft on the apron and hopped in after his preflight.

Shortly after he left maintenance another pilot came scrambling in all suited up and ready to go. He told the maintenance chief to give him a plane, and our chief obliged not knowing who the heck he was. After going through the discrepancies the pilot headed out to our aircraft and the Chief gave me a call.

I went down to the flight line and found the pilot getting ready to climb into the cockpit after doing a kick the tires, light the fires pre-flight. I was a bit surprised to see a guy I had come through Replacement Air Group (RAG) training with. I asked him who he was flying with, and he said he was part of the flight going out. "You are not listed as one of the referees Bob." He came back, "Oh, yeah, I'm not. I was just gonna catch a flight out in one of your birds."

This is like walking up to your neighbor's house, the neighbor you never talk to, grabbing the keys to his Ferrari and taking it out for a test spin. "Hmm, no, I don't think so. Go home Bob."

$\endgroup$
  • 2
    $\begingroup$ go home bob. you're drunk. don't just go flying people's aircraft around. $\endgroup$ – cat Apr 16 '18 at 12:07
22
$\begingroup$

Can a fighter jet be stolen?

Absolutely, no key required. There was the case of a lance corporal who took a USMC A-4 Skyhawk for a joyride in 1986. See: Marine Mechanic Stole An A-4M-Skyhawk.

21-year-old Lance Corporal Howard A. Foote Jr. went for a joyride after learning he can no longer pursue a flying career in the military. He was only experienced in gliders.

A load of charges were brought against the Lance Corporal, including misappropriating the truck he used to get to the aircraft and the Skyhawk itself, as well as damaging an aircraft and disobeying regulations. He was also charged with hazarding a vessel, flying without proper training or approval and recklessly disregarding the plane’s mechanical condition at the time of flight.

Many of these charges were dropped, but Foote still could have faced nine years of hard labor, forfeiture of all pay, demotion to private and a dishonorable discharge.

$\endgroup$
15
$\begingroup$

Could someone steal a jet fighter? Sure. But as mentioned above there are a few obstacles to doing this.

First you're going to have to get to a jet fighter which means you're going to need access to the flight line of a secure military facility and have to pass a number of sentries and obstacles guarded by big mean men with guns who are authorized, if necessary, to shoot trespassers; you can't just walk off the street and onto a flight line without garnering attention and apprehension by the authorities.

If somehow you could get through the defenses of such an installation and get access to a jet, you're going to have to suit up in the proper life support equipment or there's a risk the jet itself could kill you during operations, vis a vis hypoxia, G induced loss of consciousness followed by CFIT, etc. It also has on-board equipment like pyrotechnic charges for canopy jettison and rocket powered ejection seats which can kill if mishandled by a neophyte. You're going to have to have a good understanding of this equipment, how to connect and use it in the jet and how to handle various emergencies involving it.

After that, you're going to have to make your way onto a line with jets which are properly maintained in a flight ready condition, pre-flighted, and fueled. The latter is rarely done unless the aircraft is scheduled for a flight. Failure to properly pre-flight the aircraft will probably result in mechanical failure and departure from controlled flight. An armed jet with ordnance on the wing/weapons bay stations or ammunition in the gun magazine is even rarer. Such jets do exist but are usually kept in even more sterile and secure places places e.g. HAS, etc.

You will also have to know how to operate the thing. As mentioned above, high speed flight in a high performance aircraft would probably saturate and overwhelm the average Joe of Jane on the street, leading to a catastrophic accident. Sometimes jets require external start equipment and additional personnel to power up, so this might not be a one man job. Ironically combat aircraft are fairly easy to start - if you know what you're doing and what you're looking for.

And starting up a jet will attract a lot of negative attention; again the big mean men with the M-16s aren't going to casually sit back and let you taxi the jet from the parking apron to a runway.

And even if you did get the thing airborne, where are you going to go? You only have a finite amount of fuel on board and that jet goes through it pretty quickly. You have, at best, about 1000 NM of range before you run out of gas and into the arms of the law on some very serious charges. You're also likely to be intercepted by armed jet fighters flown by trained and experienced fighter pilots who will either motivate you to return the aircraft or shoot you down if they or their commanders feel you pose an immediate threat.

As mentioned above, aircraft theft of that nature usually is an inside job such as an existing military officer and appropriately rated pilot stealing a jet in order to defect to another country. There have been a few unauthorized appropriations of a military jet in the past such as this USAF mechanic taking an F-86 on an inadvertent solo flight after a botched high speed taxi test. Fortunately most thieves have been dumber than a bag of rocks and totally ignorant to operations of an aircraft, so their attempts usually don't go far as this car thief's attempt to steal a life flight helicopter from a hospital went.

$\endgroup$
7
$\begingroup$

Anything can be stolen.

If by "steal" you mean get into a fighter and fly it off by yourself, it depends on which aircraft it is and various other factors.

Many older jets cannot be cold started by just the pilot. They require a special device called an APU to spin up the engines. You would need help to operate the APU. Newer jets can be cold started by the pilot, but there are still various obstacles. The first problem is that unless the jet is on standby, it will likely be unfueled or only be partially fueled. So, if you just picked a random hangared jet to steal, it might only have 20% of a tank or less of fuel, which would limit you to a range of a few hundred miles.

Of course, if you are stealing a jet, why not steal some fuel, too? Usually fueling a high-performance fighter is a two-man job because the hose and nozzle are wicked heavy, but I suppose if you don't mind getting a hernia, you might be able to do it by yourself.

Another problem will be getting into the plane. How are you going to get up there? Get a rollaway ladder you say? Ok, and now that you are in the cockpit, what are you going to do with the rollaway? Drive over it with the aircraft? Nice move top gun.

Once you are in there, you are good to go. Military jets do not have keys. (Even most civilian aircraft have pretty rudimentary locks. Old Cessnas have ignition locks that can be picked by an 8-year-old with a bobby pin. Also, the panel is just a sheet of plastic, so you can always just reach behind the panel and connect the wires.)

Why do you ask? Planning on sneaking on to the local air base?

$\endgroup$
1
$\begingroup$

I won't get into specifics, but newer aircraft are taking this into consideration and employing authentication/authorization features. This could be as simple as a key you turn like in your car or as complicated as your helmet performing a retinal/iris scan before allowing the engines to ignite, weapons to arm, etc.

The other benefit of these measures is that preferences can be saved and it could allow a pilot to take their preferences with them from plane to plane.

So, older planes are totally steal-able (Discovery or someone actually has an airplane repo show where they kind of do just that), but newer planes will be more secure and "thieves" (or repo men or whoever) will need various "hot wire" like techniques to get around the security.

$\endgroup$
  • 1
    $\begingroup$ On the other hand, older fighter airplane models might be too difficult to fly for a pilot who does not have first-hand experience on that model. An extreme case would be a Lockheed SR-71 ("Blackbird"). Lockheed eventually replaced the analogue computers with digital ones which could better cope with abrupt input on the yoke. Still, the pilot could accidentally cause the engine to shut down. The amount of catalyst to restart an engine in flight was limited. Of course, the SR-71 had other issues which could prevent a successful theft: one is that it had to refuel in flight after takeoff. $\endgroup$ – Klaws Apr 13 '17 at 9:47
  • 3
    $\begingroup$ @Klaws The SR-71 isn't a fighter. $\endgroup$ – David Richerby Apr 13 '17 at 11:18
  • 2
    $\begingroup$ @DavidRicherby: They did make a fighter variant. The US military didn't buy it. NASA bought up the prototypes. $\endgroup$ – Joshua Apr 16 '17 at 15:50
  • $\begingroup$ These days busses and trucks have security features, so that even a driver cannot just take a vehicle. I'm amazed, that this has not been the case for jet fighters. I'm also amazed, that the fighters don't have locks, as this is a measure often employed for small planes. $\endgroup$ – mike Apr 23 '17 at 18:22
  • $\begingroup$ A co-worker was base commander at Beale and told of a U-2 that someone tried to take when it was off-base after a diversion. He comments that aside from ground support issues, there are no real security measures on that aircraft and on the SR-71. He doesn't have first hand knowledge of the broad classification of "fighter" aircraft as he only flew a few of them. $\endgroup$ – mongo May 3 '17 at 14:53
0
$\begingroup$

Once, in 1997, an A-10 pilot 'stole' the aircraft he was flying, (broke off from his flight and his assigned training mission), and disappeared from ground radar. His wrecked aircraft was later found in the side of a mountain in Colorado. It was assumed that he committed suicide.

See this article for details.

In order to 'steal' a military jet, you would have to be proficient enough in that type of aircraft to safely take off and fly the aircraft. So, the pilots who would be capable of doing this are necessarily limited to a small number of people, most of whom are military trained pilots.

$\endgroup$
  • $\begingroup$ I would disagree with your statement that there is a small number of people who can "steal" a military plane. There are many people, some pilots, some non-military pilots, and lots of maintenance people who would be able to operate a plane. I will give you credit on the A-10 incident; good point. $\endgroup$ – mongo May 3 '17 at 14:49
  • $\begingroup$ Well, I guess that depends on how you would define small. It's certainly "small" when compared to the number of people currently alive, and still "small", imho, compared to the number of pilots alive, and, probably, still less than 10% (is that "small"? compared to the number of living military pilots (at least not without some training in-type). $\endgroup$ – Charles Bretana May 3 '17 at 16:57
  • $\begingroup$ To steal an aircraft, one does not need training in-type. If one is smart enough to be flight trained, one is smart enough to find open source operational information. Besides the procedures on many aircraft are not radically different. I never ever operated a tank, yet with about 30 minutes training, I was running an untrained crew (with 30 minutes also) on a tank simulator at Ft. Knox. I have no time in fighter aircraft, yet after a 5 minute briefing I was taking off and doing maneuvers in a full motion simulator. Give me enough motivation, and who knows what might be possible! $\endgroup$ – mongo May 3 '17 at 18:03
  • $\begingroup$ @monge, If you think that simply knowing the procedures is sufficient to operate a high performance jet aircraft safely, you are wrong. Take a physicist with total knowledge of the physics, aerodynamics and structural knowledge of what happens when a man swings a bat to hit a baseball, and stand him up with a bat in front of a major league pitcher. And your simulator analogy does not hold water. Ask any military pilot qualified on a high performance aircraft that uses simulators what happened the first time he/she attempted to land one. With experience in other jets, sure, but a novice. no. $\endgroup$ – Charles Bretana Dec 17 '17 at 17:10
  • $\begingroup$ I respectfully disagree with your comment. My experience and that of my colleagues is such that with exposure to the aircraft, knowing the procedures and having familiarity would be enough to operate most aircraft adequately to "steal" one. The theft does not exercise the full gamut of aircraft performance, and many of the operations have analogs with similar aircraft. Sure, there are exceptions which are operational today, like the U-2 and the AV-8B. And if one were performing arrested landings or assisted takeoffs there might be issues. $\endgroup$ – mongo Dec 17 '17 at 21:41

Your Answer

By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service, privacy policy and cookie policy

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.