The BBC News article The Jet Engines with Digital Twins describes engineers monitoring measured versus modeled behavior of jet engines, and deviations between them signaling possible need of maintenance.
The following mention of sand:
One of the most useful parts of the digital twin is that it measures a huge number of factors that the engine faces throughout its lifetime -- some flights have more people on them then others (that will put more strain on the engine), some cities (like Abu Dhabi) have a lot of sand in their air, and some pilots push their engines harder than others. “With the twin...I can learn that the pilot is a cowboy and pushes the engine. The fuel burn we see will be different with different pilot. The digital twin remembers every one of those events. (emphasis added)
made me wonder if modern jet engines monitor and record exposure to particles of dust or sand. If so, roughly how do the airborne particle monitors work - do they monitor the size distribution, or just count number over a certain threshold of some kind?