During development, a lot of different wind tunnels are used. Scales range from full scale to less than 1/100, and sometimes not only the geometric, but also the dynamic and elastic properties of the aircraft to be tested must be modelled correctly.
Today, preliminary work is mostly done in numerical simulations, but before the availability of computers, early wind tunnel models would be between 1/50 to 1/16 scale (depending on the size of the real article and the available wind tunnel), often using modular models on which different engine placements or tail geometries could be tried out. Since wind tunnel testing costs real money, early tests are restricted to small, low-cost tunnels which run at ambient temperature and density. Differences in the Reynolds number between test article and the real aircraft are covered with correction factors and experience.
Only when a design is moving ahead during development, bigger and more expensive tunnels are used. Again, matching the Reynolds number is not possible and not even necessary for some tests: For a spin tunnel the test article must be scaled dynamically (so it has correct moments of inertia), but separated flow is less affected by the Reynolds number, so the precision of a 1/20 scale model is sufficient. Also, a free-falling model in a spin tunnel needs quite a bit of space to move around, so even small models already need test sections with a diameter of several meters.
To reduce cost and avoid the tight schedules of wind tunnels, free-flying or radio controlled models are also used. Watch how Dornier engineers tested the dynamic behavior of the then-new tricycle gear of the Do-335 in this video (starting at 2:00') or ditching characteristics (starting at 2:13').
Only when both Mach and Reynolds number need to be matched, cryogenic and pressurised wind tunnels are used. Due to their energy demand and availability, such tests need to be scheduled years in advance and meticulously planned. Models can run into millions of dollars or Euros, so such tests will mostly narrow down parameters which had been measured previously in simpler tests. Large tunnels like the 9.5x9.5m LLF in Marknesse (the Netherlands) are mostly used for low-speed and high-lift characteristics testing since its 12.6 MW engine can only support a speed of 62 m/s at full power. On the other end of the scale are hypersonic blow-down tubes which support a testing section of 0.5m diameter in which Mach 6 can be achieved for a fraction of a second.
Full-scale testing in a wind tunnel is only possible with small aircraft - see the answers to this question for examples. Even then, the speeds do not match the top speed of the aircraft, so the loads are a fraction of the real loads.
Jan Roskam observes in his book "Roskam's airplane war stories":
It certainly is an unusual luxury for an engineer to have full
Reynolds Number tunnel data available.