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Required Navigation Performance (Authorization Required) approaches require multi-crew with special training and strict equipment, similar to ILS CAT II/III.

Typically, the aircraft must have at least the following equipment: dual GNSS sensors, dual flight management systems (FMS), dual air data systems (ADS), dual autopilots, and a single IRU. (Source: FAA AC No: 90-101A.)

In IMC, can such approaches—which may include radius-to-fix segments (RF)—be flown by hand following the Flight Director cues, or must the autopilot be engaged? Such approaches usually have very small tolerances for navigational errors especially in mountainous areas.

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(airnav.com) KGUC RNAV (RNP) RWY 06.


Related: What is a SAAAR instrument approach?

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Each operator can impose their own requirements that are at least as strict as what the FAA requires, and these tend to be more strict. For instance, one operator I'm familiar with requires both INS's to be working, not just one.

For that operator, it's allowable to hand-fly an RNP approach using the Flight Director if the RNP is 0.3 NM, but if it's any lower then the autopilot must be used.

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