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Suppose someone earned a commercial pilot certificate in both ASEL and AMEL as well as only a Multi Engine Instructor license. Contingent upon both the MEI being valid and a valid Class II or better medical certificate, does the MEI allow this person to exercise the privilege of flight instruction in a single engine aircraft as well?

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No. See FAR 61.195 (b):

Aircraft Ratings. A flight instructor may not conduct flight training in any aircraft for which the flight instructor does not hold:

(1) A pilot certificate and flight instructor certificate with the applicable category and class rating...

Without an Airplane - Single Engine rating on the flight instructor certificate, an instructor may not conduct flight training in a single-engine airplane.

As an aside, a CFI/I/MEI needs only a third class medical. See FAR 61.23(a)(3)(iv):

(3) [A person] must hold at least a third-class medical certificate— ...

(iv) When exercising the privileges of a flight instructor certificate and acting as the pilot in command;

(v) When exercising the privileges of a flight certificate and serving as a required pilot flight crewmember

In addition, note that these requirements are for an instructor also acting as a PIC or required pilot. When the student is the only required crewmember for a given flight, the instructor is not required to hold a medical certificate at all.

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    $\begingroup$ A CFI does not need a medical at all as long as the pilot in training is capable of acting as pilot in command and the flight doesn't require two pilots. Many flight instructors teach commercial students that way. Reread 61.23(a)(3)(iv) above and it agrees with my statement. $\endgroup$ – wbeard52 Jan 9 '17 at 14:48
  • $\begingroup$ @wbeard52 if the pilot in training is capable of acting as PIC, then why does he need to be trained? $\endgroup$ – kevin Jan 9 '17 at 15:03
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    $\begingroup$ @kevin I assume you've taken a BFR? While not commercial, I just spent 10 hours with an instructor getting trained in a new aircraft (not a new type rating), and I was PIC the entire time... $\endgroup$ – Ron Beyer Jan 9 '17 at 15:13
  • $\begingroup$ @wbeard52 Good point! I was mostly responding to the Class 2 note in the question, but I've clarified the answer. $\endgroup$ – NathanG Jan 9 '17 at 15:14
  • $\begingroup$ @kevin I actually find your comment disturbing. $\endgroup$ – ryan1618 Jan 9 '17 at 16:13

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