The Naval Safety Center publishes some useful stats here.
(Rates are per 100,000 flight hours per year. Source.)
A few more details are available in the summaries. One example:
- E-2C: Electrical arcing at vapor cycle power receptacle led to aircraft fire in the hangar bay.
- A single F/A-18C crashed 6.6 miles northwest of Lakenheath, England. Event Cost \$72,000,000
- MV-22: While recovering to LPD, MV-22 landed short of spot 2, main landing gear in deck edge netting
- Engine fire leading to ejection. Event Cost \$71,000,000
- Two CH-53 helicopters crashed while on training flight. All 12 crewmembers deceased.
- AV-8B experience catastrophic engine failure during takeoff. Event Cost \$62,800,000
- AV-8B experienced loss of thrust, pilot ejected safely. Event Cost \$62,800,000
- 2xF/A-18F Collided during Air-to-Air training. 2 aircraft lost. No fatalities. Event Cost \$173,580,662
- EA-18G inflight engagement during night CV landing caused extensive damage to aircraft
- F/A-18 impacted ground during air show practice. Event Cost: \$75,400,000
- MH-60S crashed into James River while performing SAR training flight. Event cost: \$25,508,816
- KC130T EXPERIENCED HAIL DAMAGE WHILE PARKED ON THE RAMP AT PETERSON FLD, CO
- F/A-18C crash during night air-to-ground training mission. Event cost: \$76,500,000
- T-45C: ACUTE PHYSIOLOGICAL EPISODE RESULTS IN ACTIVATION OF THE EJECTION SEQUENCE BY CREw. Event Cost \$37,800,000
- A single T-45C impacted the ground at high energy. \$37,800,000
- Aircraft impacted a tree during low level training. Aircraft recovered safely.
- MV-22 ditched off Okinawa during NVD training mission. Event Cost \$80,600,000
Class A mishap definition:
\$2,000,000 or more and/or aircraft destroyed [or] Fatality or permanent total disability
Just note that these are just Class A's. It doesn't include B's, C's, or D's. Some of these aren't carrier related.
On a completely unrelated note, notice the costs. Modern a/c are expensive (although not all that is flyaway cost).