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In what scenarios would the dispatcher recalculate the flight plan and send it to the pilot via ACARS after take-off?

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    $\begingroup$ As a historical note, before ACARs in 747-100/200 aircraft in the 1990s, we would be re-dispatched in flight using HF radio. Our paper flight plans had both our original dispatch destination that would be used to meet the reserve fuel requirements, and also a section with our re-dispatch destination to be used if our fuel remaining at the re-dispatch point was sufficient to meet the lower fuel reserve requirements from that point. This was almost always necessary for flights from JFK to Tel Aviv in 747-100 aircraft and often necessary for 747-200 aircraft. $\endgroup$ – Terry Dec 15 '16 at 7:47
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Anytime the original routing or altitude is significantly changed, a new flight plan is calculated by dispatch and sent to the aircraft. Significant changes could mean the aircraft may not have enough fuel to reach the destination. Even minor changes are routinely re-calculated and sent to the aircraft.

The pilots send dispatch the new routing and altitude along with an updated ETA and FOB(fuel onboard) for the next waypoint. The flight plan is then recalculated from that point and sent to the aircraft.

Routing changes can be due to traffic conflicts, airspace closures, military activity, volcanic activity, etc.

If for any reason the aircraft is unable to contact dispatch, the pilots must do their own calculations to insure they have enough fuel.

If the fuel remaining is marginal, the flight can be re-filed with a new alternate closer to the final destination. If conditions can be met, the flight might be re-filed with "no alternate".

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By accident. Once the clearance is accepted and the flight is airborne it's up to the controllers and pilots to make any needed changes by coordinating.

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