There are no pre-set figure for this, as it depends on the airport and surrounding geography, aircraft performance, departure and approach procedures. ATC instructions, etc.
For departures, airports don't publish a standard point where you must reach these altitudes but they sometime publish Obstacle Departure Procedures (ODP) which will specify a minimum climb gradient which the performance capabilities of your aircraft must be able to achieve in order to safely fly the ODP. This gradient is usually listed in hundreds of feet per nautical mile. ODPs assume that you, the pilot will be able to achieve an initial climb of 500 FPNM and an altitude of at least 35 ft above field elevation by the time you clear the departure end of the runway, climb straight ahead to an altitude of at least 400 ft AFE prior to beginning your first turns from runway heading, thence maintain a climb gradient at or above the minimum listed to the waypoint listed on the ODP.
An example is as follows: Glenview Airport (KABC) has a RIVER1 ODP, which requires your aircraft to depart runway 27 thence
"climbing right turn to a heading 307° to intercept the 287° radial from the ABC vortac to CYRAC intersection 16 DME from ABC at or above 4500 feet, thence resume own navigation. Minimum climb gradient of 450 feet per NM to CYRAC."
If you are flying a C-172 and assuming a Vy of 76 KIAS, you must achieve a rate of climb of (450*76)/60 = 570 feet per min from the departure end of runway to CYRAC intersection in order to safely fly this departure procedure.
Descent and landing will usually involve the use of feeder routes from established Juliet (Jet) airways onto Standard Terminal Arrival Routes (STARs) which have established step down fixes at specific waypoints along the STAR or as advised by ATC. The STARs then feed into the specific instrument approaches for the destination airport which also has step down fixes prior to final approach fix which descends from there to either a missed approach point (non-precision app) or a decision altitude (precision app). A pilot must have confirmed visual acquisition of the runway environment from that point and the weather at the airport must be at or above the published minimums in order to continue to approach and land, else the pilot must go missed and fly the missed approach procedures for that plate.