The OPs question is stated in the context of a human carried to very high altitude by a balloon, not a human in orbit. SpaceShip One and Two are other examples of vehicles which rise through the atmosphere and then descend, without adding horizontal velocity needed for orbit. The human, the SpaceShips and the proposed blimp start at zero speed relative to the air mass they rise through, meaning they have the rotational speed of the airmass above the earth.
Presumably the blimp would be lifted by a truly enormous balloon, but would not necessarily be a Goodyear vehicle. The proposal is for a lighter-than-air craft with the lifting part shaped by differential pressure and containing both helium bag(s) and plain air bag(s) within its envelope.
Pressure could be bled down from the air supported part and the helium lifting bag(s) as the vehicle rises, maintaining whatever differential is needed to provide shape. Helium for reinflation during descent could be carried in external tanks which are dropped (with parachutes) after being emptied during descent.
Could the vehicle described exceed the speed of sound as it fell through the upper atmosphere, as a human jumper did? Remember that the falling SpaceShips exceeded Mach 1 while never getting past 350 knots indicated airspeed. That's a heck of a blimp, but need not be inflated to full size during that phase of the descent. A 'reefed' blimp might succeed in exceeding the speed of sound during descent, but an inflated one is unlikely to get going that fast. Remember that a blimp is only lighter than air at and below a ceiling, so it must free-fall if above that ceiling...