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As a pilot, if your preflight inspection includes testing the stall warning system, how is that done?

A recent question about ADs brought up AD 68-17-04, which requires pilots to test the stall warning system for proper function as part of the preflight inspection.

How would this test be done? How would other types of stall warning systems be tested?

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    $\begingroup$ What kind of aircraft? What sort of stall warning system? Small aircraft (e.g. C150) with a pressure tube? $\endgroup$ – Simon Sep 28 '16 at 18:50
  • $\begingroup$ @Simon The question arose from Jonathan's answer on another question which was referring to a Cessna. Wouldn't mind knowing about the big planes too. Not sure how you would test either without airflow over the sensors. $\endgroup$ – TomMcW Sep 28 '16 at 18:56
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    $\begingroup$ Related $\endgroup$ – Pondlife Sep 28 '16 at 19:01
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Stall warning systems generally function on the principle of measuring pressure distribution or angle of attack. As each aircraft will have a different type of stall warning system, the necessary test will vary by aircraft as well. Here, I will answer based on aircraft that I have experience with, but these concepts should cover the majority of light aircraft.

Aural stall warning systems can generally be divided into two types, pneumatic and electric.

Pneumatic

Pneumatic stall warning systems are found in many light Cessna aircraft, including the 172 and 177. The following system description is from the Cessna 177 Maintenance Manual:

The system is composed of an adjustable plate on the left wing leading edge, connected to a reed type horn by means of plastic tubing. The horn is actuated approximately 5 to 10 miles per hour above stalling speed as a negative air pressure area at wing leading edge causes a reverse flow of air through horn.

See this excerpt from Figure 15-6 in the C177 Maintenance Manual depicting the pneumatic stall warning system and it's location in the aircraft: enter image description here

To test this type of system, air must be drawn out of the system through the leading edge scoop located in the left wing. The maintenance manual and AD 68-17-04 call for a test procedure as follows:

Prior to flight, test the pneumatic stall warning system and determine if it is functioning properly, [...] by covering the opening in the left wing with a clean cloth, such as a handkerchief, and applying a slight suction by mouth to draw air through the horn. A properly functioning horn will provide a sound that is clearly audible.

The sound is something like that from a kazoo. In actual practice, speaking personally and from my observations, the "clean cloth" is typically dispensed with.

Alternately, a Stall Horn Tester is available for a small price if you would rather not have to put your mouth on a strange airplane.

Failure of these systems will typically be due to a problem either with the horn—such as a loose reed, or with the leading edge scoop—such as a cracked or misaligned scoop.

Electric

Electric systems operate on some of the same principles, but use a movable tab—instead of pneumatic suction—to sense the change pressure distribution. This type of system is found on aircraft such as the Cessna 182, Piper Cherokee, and Beechcraft King Air.

The system operation can be generalized as follows: pressure changes cause the tab to move up thereby sending an electrical signal which will sound a horn in the cockpit. In some cases the tab actuates a microswitch. In more complex systems the tab actuates a transducer which signals a stall warning computer.

The simpler of these types of systems can typically be tested with aircraft electrical power on by manually lifting the tab and listening for the warning horn. With the more complex King Air system, testing is accomplished with a switch in the cockpit which tests the circuitry and horn. In this system, signals from the stall warning transducer are blocked out by a weight on wheels switch when on the ground, with the effect that lifting the tab will not allow for system testing.

Flight Safety (FSI) offers the following system description in their King Air 200/B200 Pilot Training Manual:

The stall warning system senses angle of attack through a lift transducer actuated by a vane mounted on the leading edge of the left wing (Figure 15-10).

Angle of attack from the lift transducer and flap position signals are processed by the lift computer to sound the stall warning horn mounted on the copilot’s side of the cockpit. The horn sounds when the following conditions are present:

  1. Airspeed is 5 to 13 knots above stall, flaps are fully retracted.
  2. Airspeed is 5 to 12 knots above stall, flaps are in the APPROACH (40%) position.
  3. Airspeed is 8 to 14 knots above stall, flaps are fully extended.

The system can be tested prior to flight by placing the STALL WARN TEST switch, located on the copilot’s left subpanel, in the TEST position. This simulates a stall condition and sounds the warning horn.

enter image description here
Figure 15-10 from the FSI King Air 200/B200 Pilot Training Manual

Other Systems

Other types of systems exist with which I have no actual experience, either as a pilot or mechanic. I offer the following information without much real knowledge of it, but hopefully with good sources. Others more knowledgeable than I might be able to verify it.

The Boeing 737 has a stick shaker type stall warning system to provide the required warning, rather than an aural warning system. The SmartCockpit.com B737 NG Warning Systems document gives the following system description:

Stall Warning System

The stall warning "stick shaker" consists of two eccentric weight motors, one on each control column. They are designed to alert the pilots before a stall develops. The warning is given by vibrating both control columns. The system is armed in flight at all times. The system is deactivated on the ground.

Two independent, identical stall management yaw damper (SMYD) computers determine when stall warning is required based upon:

• alpha vane angle of attack outputs

• ADIRU outputs

• anti-ice controls

• wing configurations

• air/ground sensing

• thrust

• FMC outputs

• mach compensation

The SMYD computers provide outputs for all stall warning to include stick shaker and signals to the pitch limit indicator and airspeed displays and the GPWS windshear detection and alert.

Two test switches are installed in the aft overhead panel. Pushing either of these initiates a self-test of the respective stall warning channel. The No.1 activates the Captain stick shaker, and the No.2 activates the F/O stick shaker. Either stick shaker vibrates both columns through column interconnects.

The same document further defines the test procedure:

STALL WARNING TEST Switches

Push – on ground with AC power available: each test switch tests its respective stall management yaw damper (SMYD) computer. No.1 SMYD computer shakes Captain's control column, No.2 SMYD computer shakes First Officer's control column. Vibrations can be felt on both columns

• inhibited while airborne

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    $\begingroup$ And I thought that the pilot was just kissing his plane good night $\endgroup$ – TomMcW Sep 28 '16 at 19:06
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    $\begingroup$ The occasional insect you will ingest is good protein. The taste isn't so great through. $\endgroup$ – Terry Sep 28 '16 at 19:34
  • $\begingroup$ @Terry I still always associate the stale taste of stall warning air with Zep, due to our cleaning methods at my flight school. $\endgroup$ – J Walters Sep 28 '16 at 19:48
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    $\begingroup$ I guess it's implied by your answer, but it might be good to mention that for planes that don't have the stall warn test switch, you just push the tab on the leading edge while the power is turned on, which should then cause the horn to sound. $\endgroup$ – reirab Sep 28 '16 at 20:23
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    $\begingroup$ This is a great answer. $\endgroup$ – wbeard52 Oct 3 '16 at 17:15
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You can use a stall horn tester for a small Cessna-type suction warning:

Stall horn tester

As the product description points out, this keeps you from needing to put your lips on the potentially buggy leading edge and sucking who-knows-what out of it.

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  • $\begingroup$ Please cite your image source. It appears to be the Sportys.com product I linked to above, in which case all content is copyright. $\endgroup$ – J Walters Sep 29 '16 at 13:22

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