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I took a flight for a business travel and I saw something new for me on the wing. I highlighted that part in a red circle in the picture below. The aircraft is an Airbus A330-200.

What is it and its function? I know the anti-shock bodies and static wicks, but what's that?

enter image description here

As a contrast, there isn't such a thing on this other aircraft, an A320, except a static wick.

enter image description here

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It is the port for mid-air fuel jettison.

enter image description here

(Image credit: http://opilotoprofissional.blogspot.hk/2011/08/consideracoes-sobre-overweight-landing.html)

The A330 is a long range airliner, capable of serving flight routes that are 10~12 hours long. It is equipped to dump fuel while in-flight to reduce its landing weight.

The A320 is not a long range airliner, thus there is no need to install such equipment on it.

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    $\begingroup$ And some conspiracy theorists say it is a chemtrail sprayer. $\endgroup$ – SMS von der Tann Aug 20 '16 at 14:34
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    $\begingroup$ Your answer seems to say that dumping fuel before landing is BAU. To clarify: Fuel is never dumped, unless there is an urgent need for. Dumping capability exists only on aircraft that have an authorized mass for taking off larger than for the maximum mass for landing. Decreasing this mass would be done by dumping fuel if time lacks and they need to return to the ground before having burnt the necessary quantity. Still dumping fuel is a very slow operation. New aircraft have often mass limits for T/O and landing that are similar, so they can land without mass excess at any time. $\endgroup$ – mins Aug 20 '16 at 17:31
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    $\begingroup$ @Huang "short range" isn't always the same as "domestic flight". For example London Heathrow to Paris Charles de Gaulle is only about 215 miles (350 km) but it's an international flight, not domestic. $\endgroup$ – alephzero Aug 20 '16 at 17:56
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    $\begingroup$ @mins All three of the most recently-designed common long-haul aircraft (A380, 787, and A350) have MTOW far in excess of their max landing weight. Smaller aircraft typically don't need fuel dump capability, but almost all aircraft designed for long-haul operations do, regardless of whether they're new designs or not. It would take a lot of extra weight to make the landing gear on a long-haul aircraft strong enough to certify for landing at MTOW and, since that's not needed in normal operation, they don't design it that way. $\endgroup$ – reirab Aug 20 '16 at 20:39
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    $\begingroup$ @reirab: I don't know where I found this idea which is indeed wrong, thanks for correcting. $\endgroup$ – mins Aug 20 '16 at 21:32
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The pod as a whole is an aerodynamic fairing for the screw Jack which drives the position of the fowler flaps on the wing. The pipe as pointed out above is a fuel dump vent to jettison fuel as needed in flight.

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