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On a Bell 430 helicopter, you'll see what look like short wings on the side. I've seen people fueling in them, so I assume they are fuel tanks, but do they serve another purpose? Do they have a name?

enter image description here

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    $\begingroup$ From pictures you can also see they contain the side landing gear. $\endgroup$ – fooot Aug 19 '16 at 17:49
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Those are called sponsons and serve a few purposes:

The CH-53E main fuel system was contained in the extended length sponsons. Fuel for the No. 1 and No. 3 engines was supplied by a self sealing bladder fuel cell in the sponson. Fuel for the third engine (No. 2) was supplied by an additional self-sealing fuel cell in both the left and right sponsons.

  • They also serve as housings for main landing gear

  • They also serve as mounting points for stores, like external fuel tanks in CH 53E and for mounting torpedoes, as in the CH-148 Cyclone prototype below:

Ch-148

Image from jproc.ca

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They are called sponsons and act as enclosures for the retractable main landing gear. The 430's ancestor, the Bell 222, was equipped with the same fairings.

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    $\begingroup$ The 222U did not have retractable landing gear, yet the sponsons remain. That supports the OP's assertion that they serve multiple purposes. $\endgroup$ – dotancohen Aug 19 '16 at 23:08

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