There's no single answer to this: It very much depends on the airport and traffic, time of day, runways in use.
At Gatwick, for example, one runway is basically a permanent taxiway unless the other is closed for any reason - so you'll often be cleared to cross it along with the rest of your taxi instructions. Similarly at San Francisco, only two of the four runways are active at any given moment, so if you have to cross the other two, it wouldn't be unusual to be cleared for them as part of your taxi route.
Then at many smaller airports, they're quiet enough that you can be cleared directly to the gate, including runway crossings.
At the other end of the scale, at JFK at 3pm on a Friday afternoon, you're unlikely to be cleared to cross a runway until you're holding short next to it, and likely only behind an arriving aircraft or
2 8. Or at Schiphol, they seem medically averse to allowing aircraft to cross runways at all, so you'll usually be given a long winded route around a bunch of taxiways rather than crossing the runway.
Most other airports fall somewhere between these, where you'll often be cleared to cross one runway but hold short of another, for example, rather than given a full clearance to the gate. But on another day with an arriving aircraft closer than usual, you'll still be told to hold short.
So unfortunately there's really no better answer than "It depends" - but most ATC's will play it safe (since that's literally their job) and only issue a runway crossing clearance when you're already holding short of the runway. That really doesn't take any more time/effort for them or for you, so it's the safest option and therefore the most common at anything other than quiet airports, or where the operating procedure means you can be cleared to cross a not-in-use runway