How much shock (force) can this beacon withstand on impact?
Is there an FAA certification telling us anything about it?
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An exact model is too specific to find, but the FAA Advisory Circular 21-10A regarding ULD's from 1983 says:
There is also a patent from 1989 which lists specifications regarding most pingers:
Most pingers are cylindrical in shape. Typical dimensions for flight recorder applications are 1.25 inches in diameter and 3.8 inches long. The flight recorder ULDs can survive crash forces of 6000 g's (0.5 ms) and ocean depths of 20,000 feet.
— Google Patents (1989)
The FAA also mentions the SAE International’s Aerospace Standard (AS) 8045a, Minimum Performance Standard for Underwater Locating Devices, which is behind a paywall. But the aforementioned AC should suffice.