There are several non-US airlines which operate N-registered aircraft for domestic and international flights.

Let's say for instance Avianca, which has N-registered aircraft but is a non-US airline (flag carrier of Colombia with headquarters in Bogotá and main hub at El Dorado International Airport). What are the pilot certificates required to fly those aircraft? FAA or Colombian pilot certificates?

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    $\begingroup$ Related; it's the opposite of this question $\endgroup$
    – Pondlife
    Jun 15 '16 at 18:07
  • $\begingroup$ The flights could be branded Avianca but operated by a 3rd party. $\endgroup$
    – GdD
    Jun 16 '16 at 8:15
  • $\begingroup$ Some operator use wet leased aircraft in order to be allowed to fly in EU. $\endgroup$
    – vasin1987
    Jun 16 '16 at 15:26

There are a few aspects to this. First off all N-Registered aircraft must be owned and operated by a US based entity. As has been mentioned this could be any US based company or US resident. In reality foreign companies can set up US based branches or entities fairly easily under which to own the aircraft. The aircraft must also comply with all FAA regulations for maintaining the N-Number (annual inspections etc.) This means that the aircraft must be inspected at an FAA approved/licensed facility (they do exist outside the US). The planes can (if practical) be flown back into the US for inspections if no foreign facility is available.

When it comes to flying the plane the pilot must carry what ever is locally required to fly in and out of that country/airspace both from an equipment standpoint and a pilot standpoint. Many countries will accept/recognize different pilots certificates for inbound international traffic, that is the subject of its own question as there are many combinations out there. For what its worth the US FAA certificate and the ICAO/EASA certificate are pretty highly recognized around the world.

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    $\begingroup$ "locally required" as it is written in the text can be confusing and misinterpreted : it doesn't matter where you fly (in any of the ICAO countries). What you need is a licence issued (or accepted) by the authority that registered the plane. That is you need FAA licence to operate N-registered aircraft (anywhere in the world). No question about it. Similarly, I can operate a YR- (Romanian registered) plane in and out of U.S. ONLY with a Romanian issued licence. Operating YR- a/c in Mexico with FAA licence is not allowed,etc $\endgroup$
    – Radu094
    Nov 2 '16 at 16:02

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