Basically the airlines need keep their planes always flying, parking them idle on the airport just costs money. Parking a big plane and waiting a complete day until it gets full with passengers is expensive, flying a small plane a long time while passengers already waiting for the next flight is lost money.
In the past big planes were build for short and medium-routes, like the B747-100SR/300-SR or the A300 (first time two aisles one a twin-engine?). The 747-SR was used a lot inside Japan, while the A300 founds it first customers inside USA. But the airlines don't buy them anymore.
Consider that on short routes you are often connecting smaller airports with fewer passengers per trip, therefore a smaller plane is more efficient. On the other side, most jet-engines become more efficient when they are bigger, furthermore long boarding times are not a problem on long distance flights.
Also, one, two or three flights during a day on long routes are okay for passengers on long routes (selecting a round about departure/arrival), while on short routes you may need a flight every hour (selecting exact departure/arrival).
Notable exceptions are current B737-700ER and A319LR, both can fly around 10.000 km. I don't know the sales figures, but I think only customers with special needs buy them.