Some aircraft have engine beneath the wings and some have at the rear of the aircraft.
What are the factors that are considered while deciding where to mount an engine?
Is one configuration advantageous over other?
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I am just a Flight Sim enthusiast so everything I say should be heavily scrutinized, but there is a flightsim that features the A-10C which has an engine configuration just like you describe as you can see in the picture.
The (ingame) flight manual has the following to say about the engine configuration:
Engines All versions of the A-10 have been powered by twin TF-34-GE-100A engines that are mounted high on the rear fuselage between the wings and the rear stabilizers. The unusual placement of the engines provides several distinct advantages:
- The high mounting reduces the likelihood of the engines ingesting Foreign Object Debris (FOD) when operating from rough, forward bases in war-time.
- Engines can remain running when aircraft is being rearmed and refueled. This leads to faster mission turn-around
- Ease of servicing the engines
- Reduced IR signature from below due to the shielding of the horizontal stabilizer.
Another related thing I found was how they combine with the leading edge slats, it says.
Added leading edge slats for improved airflow to engines at higher angles of attack
As most of these reasons are in a military setting I cannot comment on the advantages for civilian aviation.