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Before entering on a hold (stack), the ATC should instruct the turns and headings to be accomplished by the crew. If it is not printed on the charts, as on STARs, what is the correct phraseology to be used by ATC?

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In the US e.g. ATC will say " hold east of Miami VOR", meaning you hold on Radial 090 right turns, 1 minute leg. In most of the rest of the wold ATC will give you the inbound course unless stated on the chart.

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You didn't mention any particular country or jurisdiction, but for the US the FAA's ATC orders say in section 4-6-4:

PHRASEOLOGY−
HOLD (direction) OF (fix/waypoint) ON (specified radial, course, bearing, track, airway, azimuth(s), or route.)

If leg length is specified, (number of minutes/miles) MINUTE/MILE LEG.

If direction of turn is specified, LEFT/RIGHT TURNS.

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