Can someone please explain citing an example Aircraft an approximate breakdown of the cost incurred in developing each part of the aircraft( fuselage, engine choices) and other things like certification that allow it to be sold to the public. Preferably an example of a plane with a clean sheet design like the Concorde which was nothing like other planes of the time.
This Powerpoint has some pretty solid data in it in terms of the general relationship of cost to sales and what not. In the end of the day you simply cant find these numbers unless the company is willing to share them (which they generally are not).
Here is a very dated paper from the airforce that also talks a bit about what you are looking for.
This poorly cited answer states its cost Cirrus $150,000,000 to develop their new Vision Jet.
A few side notes
The Concorde is not a great example of developing an airplane when it comes to cost analysis. BAE (the company that designed and built it, was BAC at the time) had most of their cost undercut by the British and French Governments at the time. The program cost an estimated 1.3 Billion Pounds Sterling and was as much about national pride as it was building a fast plane. You can find some great info on it here (48:20).
Older airframes like the Cessna 172 right on up through the Boeing 737 were built and certified in a very different time. Regulations were different and generally looser. As such it would be useless to compare the cost to get a type certificate when these planes came out with getting one today. At the same time these planes are both still in production. For what its worth the cost of keeping that type certificate up could be brought into the equation.