# What is the lifespan of commercial airframes (in general)?

You always hear that the Boeing 737 have been flying for so many years and the Airbus A310 for that many years, but of course that include new airframes being produced all the time. What is the lifespan of one airframe on average in general use by airlines, before it is scrapped?

• more important than years is number of flights, the decompression cycles induce metal fatigue, air aloha flight 245 expired before it's time because it made mainly short haul flights. – ratchet freak Mar 14 '14 at 9:53

Metal fatigue is normally the limiting factor of an aircraft's lifespan. Fatigue cracks build up every flight (start & landing), called a cycle. Therefore the design life of an aircraft is typically given in cycles.

Metal fatigue cracks

source: Boeing

For long haul aircraft, that make relatively few cycles, the design lifespan is in the order of 40 000 cycles. For short haul the number is higher, sometimes up to 111 000 cycles.

For example, the Boeing 747 has a design number of cycles of 35 000, the MD-80 has 110 000.

An aircraft should be operable for about 30 years before reaching the cycle limit. The lifetime can be stretched by special inspection and maintenance programs.

• It's worth noting that unpressurized aircraft can have similar limits for similar reasons - e.g. the Piper PA-38 Tomahawk has a wing life limit of 11,000 hours do to fatigue in the wing spar – voretaq7 Mar 14 '14 at 15:48
• It is however also worth noting that there are still some (unpressurized) aircraft manufactured 1940-1945 still in scheduled service. – Jan Hudec Mar 14 '14 at 18:34
• @JanHudec Indeed - at that time there was no real thought of life-limiting parts due to fatigue, and aircraft certificated without life limits can basically keep flying essentially "forever" (subject to prudent inspections and maintenance of course). There are Cessna and Piper trainers that have no stated fatigue life which have over 10,000 hours on them, and with good maintenance (and barring any major accidents) they may fly another 10,000 hours before they're retired. – voretaq7 Mar 14 '14 at 20:27
• In which documents can such information be found( like design number of cycles?) – user19440 Jan 24 at 10:23

In many cases the decision to retire an airframe is economical rather than just "it's old". Proper maintenance can extend an airplane's service life almost indefinitely but it gets more expensive with age/flying time/cycles.

Also, new airplanes are cheaper to operate. If buying a new plane saves the purchase price in fuel in 5 years (quite possible) then you get one. It will not need any major maintenance in that period, further reducing the total cost of ownership. For example, a 707 and 737 are comparable in terms of capacity and range, but a brand-new 737 at \$90 million will cost a lot less over 5-10 years than a used 707 picked up for \$1 million.