I'd like for this question's answers to be a references of the mnemonic devices pilots can use to assist with memorization of the equipment required by the FAA for flight in powered civil aircraft. What are the common mnemonic devices used to remember equipment required by 14 CFR 91.205?


1 Answer 1


For VFR Day Flights, you can use "A TOMATO FLAMES":

A - Altimeter

T - Tachometer for each engine.

O - Oil temp indicator for each engine

M - Manifold pressure gauge for each altitude engine

A - Airspeed indicator

T - Temperature gauge for each liquid cooled engine

O - Oil Pressure gauge for each engine

F - Fuel quantity gauge for each tank

L - Landing gear position lights (if retractable gear)

A - Anti-collision lights (aircraft certificated after March 11, 1996)

M - Magnetic direction indicator

E - ELT, if required by §91.207

S - Safety belts / Shoulder harnesses

For VFR Night Flights, you can use "FLAPS". This will be in addition to all the equipment required for a VFR Flight in Daylight.

F - Fuses (spare set)

L - Landing light (if for hire)

A - Anti-collision light

P - Position lights (navigation lights)

S - Source of power (such as battery)

Additionally, as @wbeard52 pointed out below, you can use "GRABCARD" as a mnemonic device to memorise the equipment required for IFR Flight. Again, these would be in addition to all the equipment required for VFR Day and Night Flight.

G - Generator/alternator

R - Radios (two way and navigational equipment appropriate for the ground facilities to be used)

A - Altimeter (sensitive) adjustable for barometric pressure

B - Ball (slip-skid indicator, which is part of your turn coordinator)

C - Clock (shows hours minutes and seconds and installed as part of aircraft equipment)

A - Attitude indicator

R - Rate of turn indicator

D - Directional gyro (Heading indicator)

  • 1
    $\begingroup$ Dont forget GRABCARD for IFR flight. $\endgroup$
    – wbeard52
    Commented Oct 22, 2015 at 1:46
  • $\begingroup$ @wbeard52 I specified VFR in the question figuring I'd make a separate one for IFR equipment later. Good call though. $\endgroup$
    – ryan1618
    Commented Oct 22, 2015 at 2:03
  • $\begingroup$ Good enough. I'm updating the question to cover all mnemonics for 91 205. $\endgroup$
    – ryan1618
    Commented Oct 22, 2015 at 2:12

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