The first test with ejection seats were performed in 1942 in Sweden with a Saab 17 and in Germany in 1941 with a Junkers 87 and in 1943 with a Heinkel 219 and Heinkel's pneumatic seat. Of course, then it was not the pilot who ejected but his back seater, but the aircraft did not need much modification for the tests. In each case, the pilot performed an uneventful landing after the test flight.
Saab 17 (above, source) and Heinkel 219 (below, source) during ejection seat trials.
To enable someone to fly the aircraft home after an ejection requires two conditions:
- The second seat must be equipped with flight controls
- The ejection sequencing is switched off, so the seats can be activated independently. Normally, triggering the sequence from either seat will eject all occupants.
It is exceedingly rare that both conditions are true in a modern combat aircraft. There have been a few cases where a crew member flew an aircraft to a successful landing after the pilot bailed out, but I know only a single case where the bail-out was done by ejection seat. It was a Boeing B-47, and the YouTube link is to a re-enactment of this B-47 flight in which one observer, who was also a trained pilot, took over after the crew had bailed out due to a fire in the electrical installation.
Read the last of the stories from this page for one accident in which everyone but the pilot ejected from an S-3 with a stuck nose wheel, and the pilot later performed a safe landing.
I guess you are concerned about the damage done by an ejection. The firing of the rockets happens in the rear part of the now very well ventilated cockpit and is a very brief event, so the flight controls and instrumentation should be in working order after an ejection. However, after the event nobody will be there to take over, and there is no way another crew member will be able to take over unless he/she has his/her own set of controls.
There have been cases of inadvertent ejection seat activations by mechanics on the ground. When this happens, a new ejection seat is needed, the shear pins and in most cases the canopy need replacement. After that, the cockpit area needs to be checked and cleared. But the airplane will return to service.
Fun fact: The XB-70 had ejection capsules to make ejection at supersonic speed possible and to protect the pilots in case of pressure loss. Life support systems and a minimum set of flight controls were duplicated inside the capsule, and the pilot could continue to fly the aircraft down to a safer altitude after initiating the encapsulation sequence. Only then he would trigger the ejection.