The only direction a (fixed wing) aircraft can move using the flight controls is forward. So, it is the forward visibility that is important. The front of the aircraft is the best place for this purpose. The limited visibility in other cases are reasonably over come by using extra cameras or marshalers and markings in the ground.
The Airbus A80, for example, has three cameras, one each in the nose, belly and the tail,which can be viewed in the screen by the pilot.
The closest any aircraft has come to be flown using a VR headset is the AN/AAQ-37 electro-optical Distributed Aperture System (DAS) which is being used in the Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II.
The EO/DAS consists of six high resolution Infrared sensors flush-mounted around the aircraft to afford 360-degree, spherical (4$\pi$ steradian) coverage, basically allowing the pilot to see through the airframe.
Each of these sensors collect data in different directions and the on-board computer 'stitches together' these images (and data from EOTS and Radar) and projects them onto the pilot's Helmet Mounted Display System (HMDS), making it the only modern combat aircraft without a HUD.
However, there are issues with using these in a commercial airliner:
They are costly- around $400,000 (some reports say ~700,000) apiece and non-interchangeable; while this (situation awareness) could be priceless in combat scenarios, I don't see commercial airliners shelling out this amount of money to replace a system that works pretty well.
The amount of computing power required is enormous. Reportedly, the DAS system collects about a terabyte of data per hour. For aircraft which fly most of their time in a predetermined altitude and heading, this amount of data flow and computing power is not required.
Note that the system is not yet fully operational. There are issues with the helmet like latency, 'green' glow, jittery image, resolution issues etc.- reportedly solved, though some pilots say they don't use this system very often.