Yes, Boeing built other airliners, with different numbering, although none of them were jet-powered. Three iconic designs come to my mind right away, although there were others:
The Boeing 247 predated the DC-3 into service, and was a highly advanced twin-engine, monoplane cabin design. It was a pioneering aircraft, introducing all-metal construction, a cantilever wing, and retractable landing gear. It was later surpassed by the DC-3, as the 247's cabin was too small for serious airline service.
The Boeing 314 "Clipper" was a large four-engine flying-boat transport from just before World War II. Not quite as pioneering as the 247D, it nonetheless was massive for its time and heavily influenced later large Boeing designs.
The Boeing 377 "Stratocruiser" was a post-World War II design based on the B-29 bomber, with a double-deck (double-bubble) fuselage and four piston engines. It was large, pressurized, and technologically advanced, but relatively unsuccessful in sales compared to contemporary designs like the Lockheed Constellation.
As others have mentioned, the aircraft in your question is a Sud Caravelle, which was designed to solve the same problem as the later Boeing 737: it was a shorter-range airliner meant for smaller routes. You point out how much the Caravelle's nose looks like the Boeing 787, and you're right - but it is even more similar to the De Havilland Comet; Sud licensed the design from De Havilland.
All photos from Wikipedia.