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What are the major differences (if any) between the air traffic control service in Europe vs. USA vs. Canada?

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One of the big differences between regions is how aircraft operators pay for the service. In the US, the FAA is funded by taxpayers and fuel levies. In New Zealand (for example), aircraft operators are billed for use of air traffic control services. I don't know what the billing situation is in Europe.

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  • $\begingroup$ In the UK, en-route ATS is funded by charging the airlines. $\endgroup$ Commented Aug 27, 2015 at 10:07
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    $\begingroup$ Europe, being Europe, lets each country set their route charges, but has at least managed to unify the billing process. It is managed by Eurocontrol and is explained in more detail here: eurocontrol.int/faq/route-charges $\endgroup$
    – Monolo
    Commented Aug 27, 2015 at 10:15
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Very, very few. We (not just the West, but most of the world) all follow ICAO document 4444.

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    $\begingroup$ Just as a matter of historical oddities, though Saudi Arabia and India followed ICAO technically back in the 1990s you had to be religiously correct if you were talking to a religiously-sensitive controller. In Saudi, if you didn't start your initial transmission with "salaam alaikum", they would not acknowledge you. Also in India when Hindu nationalists started advocating that the name of Bombay be changed to Mumbai and Madras to Chennai, if we didn't get an answer when we said Bombay, we would try Bombay, and it worked both ways If you first tried Mumbai, a non-Hindu wouldn't reply. $\endgroup$
    – Terry
    Commented Aug 27, 2015 at 5:28
  • $\begingroup$ @Terry, yikes! Just one more thing for a busy pilot to worry about. $\endgroup$
    – FreeMan
    Commented Aug 27, 2015 at 12:32
  • $\begingroup$ This is not correct. ATC procedures in the USA differ greatly from ICAO SARPS. $\endgroup$ Commented Oct 22, 2016 at 9:15

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