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I have gone through many ICAO and aviation related sites, but I still can not understand the basic difference between annexes and docs.

What is it?

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An Annex to the Chicago Convention on International Civil Aviation (which established the ICAO) is adopted by the ICAO Council according to particular voting procedures laid out in Article 90 of the Convention, and is binding upon the signatory States.

An ICAO document is just something the ICAO organization has chosen to publish in its Doc Series with an identifying number for ease of reference. Being an "ICAO Document" doesn't in itself say anything about who wrote it or its legal force. For example, Doc 7300 is the Chicago Convention itself, which has a lot of force (but not because it has a Doc number), whereas Doc 9562, Airport Economics Manual is more informative in nature and tries to be persuasive rather than authoritative.

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There is no general consensus on the legal bindingness of the Annexes for the member states among jurists (Abeyratne, R., Air Navigation Law, 2012, Springer). It is therefore difficult to establish a difference between ICAO Annexes and Documents. Deviations from ICAO standards are listed in a country's AIP (Aeronautical Information Publication) in section GEN 1.

There is a different post on stackexchange suggesting that ICAO's documents (both SARPs and Docs) do not have the force of law: Do ICAO specifications have the force of regulation?.

What this legally boils down to in the different member states, I don't know.

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An annex is quite literary what it says. It is a document that is annexed (or "appended' or "attached") to the ICAO convention (where "convention" means a document). An "annex" states the Standards and Recommend practices (SARPs) expected from State signatories to the ICAO convention. The documents expand on the SARPS explaining and/or nominating how and what a State has to do to achieve the SARPs. In essence in simplistic terms an annex is the chapter heading of a book and the documents are the content of the chapter.

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Actually an Annex contains SARPs (Standards And Recommended Practices) that are to be adopted (Standards) or that member states should try to adopt (Recommended Practices). However documents contain further explanation and methods to implement SARPs.

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