The answer lies in the same article section you referenced. There are two animations there, on the right.
As you can see in this animation, the longer runway is for landing. If an aircraft could not stop, it needs to take off again. That is the reason aircraft carriers have the landing strip angled so that it will not interfere with aircraft which are about to take off or the parked ones.
Simon clarifies that OP is specifically asking about why landing runways are not pointed towards the right/starboard side.
While the island1 is usually built on the starboard side of the fight deck, the Japanese aircraft carriers Akagi and Hiryū had their islands built on the port side.
The reason might be more of a tradition that reasons behind it. Please note that there very few aircraft carriers in the world, and only a few countries have it. So there is not a big competition or difference of standards in this area.
1: The superstructure of a carrier (such as the bridge, flight control tower) are concentrated in a relatively small area called an island