How to recover from a spin in a Cessna 172 ? What are the different maneuvers that a pilot would have to use to to do so?
The memory aid is PARE:
- POWER to idle
- AILERONS neutral
- RUDDER on the floor opposite the direction of spin
- ELEVATOR nose-down to break the stall
You will want to read the full explanation in the Pilots Operating Handbook or POH for an understanding of the steps and why you need to take them. Commit the sequence above to memory and better yet get spin training from a qualified instructor.
The POH for the 172N model reads (caps and boldface in original):
Should an inadvertent spin occur, the following recovery procedure should be used:
- RETARD THROTTLE TO IDLE POSITION.
- PLACE AILERONS IN NEUTRAL POSITION.
- APPLY AND HOLD FULL RUDDER OPPOSITE TO THE DIRECTION OF ROTATION.
- JUST AFTER THE RUDDER REACHES THE STOP, MOVE THE CONTROL WHEEL BRISKLY FORWARD FAR ENOUGH TO BREAK THE STALL. Full down elevator may be required at aft center of gravity loadings to assure optimum recoveries.
- HOLD THESE CONTROL INPUTS UNTIL ROTATION STOPS. Premature relaxation of the control inputs may extend the recovery.
- AS ROTATION STOPS, NEUTRALIZE RUDDER, AND MAKE A SMOOTH RECOVERY FROM THE RESULTING DIVE.
If disorientation precludes a visual determination of the direction of rotation, the symbolic airplane in the turn coordinator may be referred to for this information.
Other Spin Recovery Methods
The methods below may or may not recover from all spins. Seek out a qualified instructor for spin training — or, better yet, avoid spins altogether!
Finagin advocates a four-step recovery technique for unintentional spins and departures from controlled flight that pilots can put to use without hesitation — and without fear of making the situation worse — even when they’re confused or disoriented by the unusual attitudes and strange sensations that can accompany spins.
- Rip the power to idle.
- Forcefully neutralize the stick and rudder pedals.
- Look at the airspeed indicator, and once it shows 100 knots or more (roughly 1.4 times the airplane’s stall speed) …
- Pull out of the dive.
- Power – Off.
- Remove your hand from the stick.
- Apply full opposite rudder until rotation stops.
- Neutralize rudder and recover to level flight.
Source: Spins in the Pitts Special by Gene Beggs
Hands In Your Lap
Some advocate the “hands in your lap” method of pulling power, taking your hands (and feet) off the flight controls, and waiting for the airplane to fly itself out of the spin. This may work for certain airframes but not all. Catherine Cavagnaro of Ace Aerobatic School says she likes to perform spin training in a Cessna 152 because that airplane will not self-recover from a spin.
I always taught my students the acronym PARE:
P: Power idle. This reduces the airflow over the tail. This may seem counterintuitive, but it's about helping to lower the nose and break the stall. The less airflow over the tail, the lower its downward lift component will be. This will in turn allow the aircraft's nose to drop, helping to break the stall. A: Ailerons neutral. This may also seem counterintuitive, as your natural urge will be to put opposite aileron in to level the wings. But in a stall, one wing is more stalled (higher angle of attack) than the other. Let's say it's the left wing. If you were to add right aileron to bring that left wing back up, that means that the left wing's aileron will go down in an attempt to create more lift on that wing. But by lowering the aileron on that wing you will actually be increasing the angle of attack on that wing, which in turn will only deepen the stall on the wing and worsen the spin. R: Rudder full opposite the spin. This is the key step, and in most Cessnas will be enough on its own to dampen or end the spin pretty fast. It counteracts the yaw and roll of the spin. E: Elevator nose down to break the stall (after applying the opposite rudder). This will be like an exaggerated stall recovery, as you will likely have a very nose low attitude. However, this step is key on some aircraft to break the stall.
All aircraft have different stall and spin characteristics. Some are certified for spins, some aren't but will recover easily, and some will not recover well at all. Consult your aircraft's POH to learn about your aircraft's characteristics and certifications, and don't attempt to learn by yourself; always fly with an instructor if you intend to practice spin recoveries.
First lesson from my CFI to recover from a spin: Feet on floor, hands in your thighs. This is called the Beggs/Mueller recovery technique.
The 172 is a "stable" plane. So, as i understand it, if it were dropped from upside down or on its side from a cargo plane, it will right itself.