Generally, a series of related aircraft uses the same wing: Take the A318, A319, A320 and A321: All use the same wing with the same airfoil, but the much lighter A318 can get away with single-slotted flaps while the heaviest, the A321, needs two flap sections for a double-slotted flap to tease out every bit of lift in order to keep the increase in take-off and approach speeds small. Since the flaps are the easiest part of the wing to adjust its lift capabilities to the needs of the aircraft, you will see a lot of variations in them.
The leading edge devices don't show so much variation: Inboard, a Krüger flap is most common, and outboard a slat is used. While a slat will always have a slot between itself and the wing, a Krüger flap can be slotted or unslotted. When extended, both will show a very similar shape to the airflow, and only their movement is different: While the slat moves forward with a small downward rotation, the Krüger flap swings around a hinge close to the wing's leading edge. Both have either a fully retracted or a fully extended position, while trailing edge flaps can be set in steps to adjust them for moderate lift / low drag increase during take-off, or high lift / high drag for landing.
The complex hinge mechanism in your picture allows the Krüger flaps of the Boeing 747 to increase their camber when extended. This is actually unique among airliners.
The Krüger flap is the newest of them and was invented in 1943. All patents on them expired long ago, and only individual details like the mechanism might be covered by patents today.