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How do engineers calculate the hypothetical max altitude of a helicopter if the mass, altitude and length/curvature of blades are known?

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From the Source:

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enter image description here It shows how to calculate theoretical maximum altitude a Helicopter can achieve

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The helicopter reaches its ceiling if all installed power is used for propelling the helicopter forwards: there is no more extra power available to climb.

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The figure from this answer shows the required power as a function of airspeed: it can be seen that there is an optimal true airspeed where required power has a minimum. It is at this airspeed that the helicopter reaches its OGE ceiling.

So it will be necessary to compute the four types of power at speed and height:

  • Propulsive & induced power, depending on rotor blade length, tip speed, blade chord and twist, solidity ratio.
  • Profile, depending on blade profile shape.
  • Parasitic, depending on fuselage shape, rotor mast shape etc.
  • Tail rotor, which is again propulsive & blade power of the tail rotor.
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