Are wheel brakes on most commercial jet airliners capable of holding the jet stationary on a dry surface, if all the engines are given full thrust? Could doing this be potentially unsafe or damaging to any of the aircrafts other structures, such as pylons, wings, etc.
Yes they are. In fact this is required for a static takeoff. A static take-off means setting the brakes and running up the engines to takeoff power then when ready they release the brakes and start the takeoff roll.
Besides that one of the test Airliners have to withstand is a worst-case V1 abort.
This means starting a takeoff and at the last second slam the brakes, come to a stop and then taxi around for 5 minutes. This all needs to happen fully-loaded and with worn brakes that are still certified safe to use.
Between hitting the brakes and coming to a stop the engines will not have time to spool down and stop providing takeoff power.
Airliner mechanics also do engine run-up tests essentially powering up the engine and going through the power range and making sure it works as specified. This is usually 1 engine at a time.
In these run-up tests loose debris (including cars) can be thrown around by the engine blast. So it's important to keep the area clear.