When in normal Law are Airbus aircraft now protected from the types of excessive rudder input that caused the crash of American Airlines 587 (as dramatized in Mayday, S13E05)?
Yes, A320 and all newer models have rudder travel limiter that limits the maximum rudder deflection depending on speed.
It should be noted, that this has nothing to do with normal law. Normal law governs pitch and roll. Rudder is controlled by (hydro)mechanically connected¹ pedals and yaw damper, which is independent from the system controlling pitch and roll and simply reacts to side-slip (lateral acceleration actually, only A350 will have side-slip vanes) induced by the roll.
¹ Different Airbus models have different subset of controls with direct hydromechanical link as a backup in case of electric failure, so I am not sure rudder pedals have it on all models. They do on A320.