Excerpt from the FAA Publication "Instrument Procedures Handbook":
Standard taxi routes improve ground management at highdensity
airports, namely those that have airline service. At
these airports, typical taxiway traffic patterns used to move
aircraft between gate and runway are laid out and coded.
The ATC specialist (ATCS) can reduce radio communication
time and eliminate taxi instruction misinterpretation by
simply clearing the pilot to taxi via a specific, named route.
An example of this would be Los Angeles International
Airport (KLAX), where North Route is used to transition
to Runway 24L. [Figure 1-7] These routes are issued by
ground control, and if unable to comply, pilots must
advise ground control on initial contact. If for any reason
the pilot becomes uncertain as to the correct taxi route, a
request should be made for progressive taxi instructions.
These step-by-step routing directions are also issued if the
controller deems it necessary due to traffic, closed taxiways,
airport construction, etc. It is the pilot’s responsibility to
know if a particular airport has preplanned taxi routes, to
be familiar with them, and to have the taxi descriptions
in their possession. Specific information about airports
that use coded taxiway routes is included in the Notice to
Airmen Publication (NTAP).
NTAP can be found on: https://www.faa.gov/air_traffic/publications/notices/
At the time of writing the KLAX North Route example can be found on page 4-SW-11, and reads:
Taxi towards taxilane Sierra (S) taxi northbound on taxilane Sierra (S), and at Check-point-1 contact Ground
Control on frequency 121.65, hold short of taxiway Delta (D).
Taxilane Sierra (S) is not visible from the ATCT
There's also FAA Advisory Circular 7110.116 regulating Standard Taxi Routes (STR's) as bilateral agreements (LOA's - Letter of Agreement) between each ATC unit and their users (airlines). The document contains information on what the LOA needs to contain.
Outside of the US, standard taxi instructions, if any, could be expected to be found in the AD-section (Aerodromes) of that respective country's AIP (Aeronautical Information Publication).
As an airline pilot, this information might be integrated into your company's nav data solution, ie. information about standard taxi routes available to you would be written/drawn out bundled with your airport diagrams etc.