The brakes are much more effective than anything else, at least for the jet I have experience in (EMB-145).
Our landing performance data typically assumes full braking application, spoilers deployed and no reverse thrust. The airplane will most certainly stop without using reverse thrust, just not as fast. I never tried not using the brakes, and if I were to I would want a light airplane and a very long runway.
As Lnafziger pointed out in the comments, the brakes are part of redundant systems so that they are always available. In the EMB-145, the brakes were serviced by two independent* hydraulic systems. The inboard brakes were on one system while the outboards were on the other for a total of four wheels each with big carbon fiber brakes.
To address the comments on slick runways, assuming braking action allows an attempt to land in the first place, you have to be careful. With reverse thrust alone you may not be able to maintain the runway centerline and directional control may become difficult through uneven deployment of the reversers and other factors. In this scenario the spoilers are helpful to increase traction and brake effectiveness. In short, if the runway is slick then the only way I'm attempting a no-wheel-brake landing is after declaring an emergency.
Finally, to address the question in the title, the wheel brakes are always the primary means of slowing the airplane.
*You could transfer fluid between our systems through the parking brake.