In the US, what are the requirements that a student pilot must demonstrate to their examiner before they can take a checkride for their private pilot airplane certificate?
Private Pilot Airplane Single-Engine Checkride Requirements
Eligibility Requirements (14 CFR 61.103)
- Be at least 17 years of age for a rating in other than a glider or balloon
- Be able to read, speak, write, and understand the English language
- Instructor logbook endorsement certifying your aeronautical knowledge (14 CFR 61.105) and that you are prepared for the written test
- Passed the written test and can present your original embossed Airman Knowledge Test Report
- Instructor logbook endorsement certifying your flight proficiency (14 CFR 61.107)and that you are ready for the flight test
- Log all required aeronautical experience (below)
Aeronautical Experience (14 CFR 61.109):
- 40 hours of flight time (35 for 141 schools) that includes:
- 20 hours of dual instruction
- 10 hours of solo flight training
- 3 hours of cross-country dual
- 3 hours of night dual (to get an unrestricted license) that includes:
- 1 cross-country flight of over 100 nautical miles total distance
- 10 takeoffs and 10 landings to a full stop (with each landing involving a flight in the traffic pattern) at an airport
- 3 hours of instrument dual
- 3 hours of dual in preparation for the practical test within 2 calendar months
- 10 hours of solo including
- 5 hours of cross-country time
- 1 150 NM solo cross country flight, with full-stop landings at three points and one segment of the flight consisting of a straight-line distance of more than 50 NM between the takeoff and landing locations
- 3 takeoffs and 3 landings to a full stop (with each landing involving a flight in the traffic pattern) at an airport with an operating control tower
I'm sure someone will post the exact regs, but as a stop-gap, from memory:
- 40 hours (35 if the school is part 141) minimum total time
- 20 hours dual instruction
- 3 hours flight "by reference to instruments" (under the hood)
- 5 hours solo cross country (50nm minimum between two points along each trip)
- One solo 150nm XC flight with at least 3 airports (two of which must be at least 50nm apart)
- 3 hours night flight (dual instruction)
- One night XC (dual)
- 10 night landings (full stop)
- 3 hours of dual instruction explicitly for check ride prep, within 90 days of the check ride
- Endorsements for the items above needing endorsements
- An endorsement from a CFI stating the candidate is prepared for the check ride.
Additionally, mine has a statement that my (part 61) CFI had seen my US passport (and its number) establishing proof that I am a US citizen, in accordance with 49 CFR 1552.3(A).
Mah explained everything very well.
The non-flying requirements are:
- Be at least 17 years old (14 years old for glider or balloon rating)
- Be able to read, speak, write and understand the English language
- Obtain at least a third class medical certificate from an Aviation Medical Examiner
- Pass a paper/computerized aeronautical knowledge test
- Pass an oral test and flight test administered by an FAA inspector, FAA-designated examiner, or authorized check instructor
Regulations are somewhat different for different aircraft (airplane, helicopter, glider, etc). I'll assume the question asks about private pilot for single-engine land-based aircraft (SEL).
For the United States, answer can be found in FAR §61 subpart E. Applicable sections are: 103(a),(c)-(j), 105, 107(a),(b)(1), 109(a).
Reference: FAR §61, Subpart E
Disclaimer: not a lawyer, just a humble student pilot navigating this gauntlet himself :-).