Both leading and trailing edge sweep help to reduce compressibility effects. For simple estimates, quarter chord sweep is used. This is more influenced by the leading edge, but the trailing edge is still involved with 25% of the total value.
If we look at the particular influence of trailing edge sweep, it is mostly found in the effectiveness of flaps and ailerons. Their effectiveness is proportional to the cosine of hinge line sweep. However, flaps at the end of a long wing chord will create a high pitching moment, requiring a big tail. Most delta wings use simpler, less effective flaps with less moment change.
In supersonic aircraft trailing edge sweep helps to reduce sonic boom intensity.
In the end, trailing edge sweep is mostly an outcome of the design process, similar to wing chord. The structural engineer will want to have a deep root airfoil in order to have enough wing height for a stiff spar or the landing gear without increasing relative thickness too much, and the aerodynamicist wants to reduce wetted area, since it will create friction drag and increase wing mass. In the end, all have to agree to a compromise.