What 2 parts of the airframe are the first to have structural failure after exceeding maximum speed?
Sorry. I just thought there might be a part that usually failed first.
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Unfortunately it's impossible to answer your question. No part of any aircraft design will simply fail because the 'speed' is to high. You need to consider the airspeed (in this particular case the equivalent airspeed) as a force acting on the airframe and as Force stated correctly it's not the only factor, which needs to be considered. Mass, existing weakening of the structure and the attitude as well as the surface design, which obviously varies between different aircraft, need to be taken into account.
Now tell a Pilot that he is not allowed to bank more than x1 degrees, if the aircrafts mass is bigger than x2 or even lighter than x3, if the aircrafts last overhaul was more than x4 month ago, at a higer airspeed then x5 KEAS. He will refuse it - by the way the aircraft won't be certified because of its manual - as well as he would refuse to calculate the load factor while flying. Thats why maximum speeds are calculated or even set up during flight testing. VNE, VA, VFE, VLO... all expressed in KIAS. By the way 2 different aircraft flying the same KEAS will most probably don't have the same indicated airspeed.
In general you can say that at maybe 70 percent of all aircraft either the parts which carry the heaviest loads or those parts which are not reinforced to withstand high loads, because they don't have to during normal operation plus safety margins, fail first when exceeding VNE and the safety margin in straight and level flight.
The never exceed speed can also be set as the aircraft becomes only very hard to control above it, there were no further tests and calculations made or for sure also some other reasons.