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Is there a minimum distance a building on the actual airport property must be from a taxiway or a runway? Two examples of a building would be the terminal and concourses or any hangers for example.

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There is the concept of a safety area (runway safety area or taxiway safety area) in which there should be absolutely nothing taller than a blade of grass, in order to protect aircraft which might depart the pavement. In the a runway which is intended for use by air carriers will generally have a safety area defined as 250' either side of the centerline (or sometimes 250' either side of the runway edge) and 1000' from the ends of the runway, although this is not always the case.

Of course having absolutely nothing in the safety area is an unachievable goal, because there is certain infrastructure which must be present: Pavement edge lights, glide slope antennas, taxiway signs, etc. These features are often designed with special frangible bases so they shear away when they are hit and ideally do not damage the aircraft which hit them.

In the final analysis, the minimum distance a building must be from a runway/taxiway depends on the wingspan of the aircraft which are going to use that runway/taxiway. It is common to have certain taxiways be restricted to only aircraft under a certain wingspan; as a random example, here is one such restriction which applies at Atlanta-Hartsfield:

Acft with wingspan greater than 171 ́ are rstd from using Twy V.

More information and further sources can be found at this answer regarding aircraft-to-aircraft separation on taxiways/runways.

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There are rules for setting glideslope descent path slopes to clear buildings in the approach path by a certain margin of feet, but sometimes they cannot be followed. For example, some years ago the bottom of the glideslope path tolerance stack intersected several tall buildings in downtown San Diego that were in the approach path. I do not know if this issue was ever resolved but since I no longer fly into and out of San Diego on business anymore, I have stopped worrying about it.

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