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I am studying instrument approaches and I am not quite sure about this particular NDB-based approach procedure. Particularly, in regards to two things that, in my head, are conflicting:

  1. "Direct entry to the procedure is mandatory", to me, the "procedure" seems to begin at the 009º QDR course as you pass overhead the locator, as another way of saying that you can't just get there at an absurd angle and try to intercept the 009º QDR after coming in on like a 270º heading.

  2. However, this seems to me like you could ignore the racetrack procedure entirely provided you are approaching on the specified entry sector. Because if the "procedure" mentioned in "Direct entry to the procedure is mandatory" also includes the racetrack, doesn't that mean that you cannot even ENTER the racetrack itself in a teardrop or parallel entry?

Chart

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  • $\begingroup$ I keep reading "IAF" as "Israeli Air Force"... $\endgroup$
    – FreeMan
    Commented Feb 8 at 16:11
  • $\begingroup$ Perhaps this is a case where EASA regs differ from US? For an approach in the US, if your turn at the IAF is 90 deg or less you may (if so instructed by ATC) turn and continue straight in rather than fly the PT. Likewise if vectored onto the approach. If you are not so instructed you must fly the PT. In practice, my understanding is that ATC sometimes forgets to say "straight in" and pilots do it anyway and no one cares. $\endgroup$ Commented Feb 10 at 2:57
  • $\begingroup$ @FosterBoondoggle that is true if being vectored to final, but in this situation the full PT is being flown. See my example below of a holding pattern used for alignment in the US. $\endgroup$
    – Timbo
    Commented Feb 10 at 11:35

2 Answers 2

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#1. Yes, you must fly to the NDB directly. If you are coming from the south (inbound heading between 339 degrees and 039 degrees), you enter the procedure turn outbound. If you are inbound from any other direction, you must request one turn in holding for alignment.

#2. The holding pattern is not part of the procedure. If you need to use it for alignment, you must first request that from ATC (see the note in the lower left section of the chart).

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  • $\begingroup$ One of my colleagues, who just did his IFR checkride, passed, but said the examiner reprimanded him for coming in from a direct entry but not performing the racetrack. If the holding pattern is not part of the procedure, how can this be the case? $\endgroup$
    – GapeN
    Commented Feb 9 at 4:42
  • $\begingroup$ From which bearing was your colleague approaching the NDB? Also, a holding pattern that is not aligned with final is either an arrival hold (e.g., for delaying) or for alignment. That is separate from a procedural course reversal. $\endgroup$
    – Timbo
    Commented Feb 10 at 2:51
  • $\begingroup$ He's adamant that he was doing a 030 heading inbound the NDB. $\endgroup$
    – GapeN
    Commented Feb 10 at 3:54
  • $\begingroup$ @GapeN , your colleague was correct to cross the NDB and join the 009° outbound. No turn in holding is required for that. $\endgroup$
    – Timbo
    Commented Feb 10 at 11:39
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You do not need to fly a procedure turn if (I use SHARP TT). Straight in approach clearance, Hold in lieu of procedure turn, DME Arc, Radar vectors to final, No Procedure turn published on chart, Timed approach from a hold fix, Teardrop entry course reversal.

So, that being said your #1 is correct. You want to be doing a procedure turn to intercept for final approach course smoothly. #2 while it may seem easier for you to just ignore and make a decent turn to get on course it is important to be as predictable as possible to ATC (or in uncontrolled, other aircraft) along with this PT side of the radial being protected from other traffic at that alt. So if this PT is published and you do some other sort of PT you are risking hitting other traffic or making ATC go crazy by surprising them with an unpublished hold.

I live in Southern California (USA) and holding on the correct side of a radial is huge. It could mean life or death due to the high volume of traffic. I have held over a VOR with 3 others at different altitudes and having to deal with traffic using the VOR as an airway. Hopefully this helps on why its published like that and why its so important!

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  • $\begingroup$ By "PT", do you mean the procedure turn represented by the racetrack at the IAF, or the 45/180 procedure turn after the spending 2:30m on the 009º QDR? $\endgroup$
    – GapeN
    Commented Feb 9 at 4:44
  • $\begingroup$ Yes PT is procedure turn its commonly depicted at PT on US charts. So what they want you do do exactly is you’ll fly over the fix (the NDB) perform the procedure turn by properly entering depending on your sector. Ex. Sector 3 is direct entry (according to the chart this is the entry sector they want you to be doing and to do 2 or 1 you must request it), sector 2 is teardrop and sector 1 is parallel entry. Then you’ll do the racetrack pattern with the 009 inbound and 189 outbound. Upon the final 009 inbound you will overfly the fix continue outbound on 009. Usually this will be 1min -1.5mins $\endgroup$
    – Taylor B
    Commented Feb 9 at 19:48
  • $\begingroup$ Then turn to heading 324 for a min or so, then finally you will fly inbound on the QDM 189 to land. They are saying direct entry to the PT is mandatory assuming your flying the PT and not being vectored to final. $\endgroup$
    – Taylor B
    Commented Feb 9 at 19:49
  • $\begingroup$ @TaylorB, be careful not to confuse a hold in lieu of procedure turn with a racetrack designed for alignment. What is true for you in SoCal is not the same internationally. The closest approximation would be a charted arrival hold that you request to use for alignment outbound. An arrival hold is not part of the procedure. $\endgroup$
    – Timbo
    Commented Feb 10 at 2:58
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    $\begingroup$ In this case there is no such thing as "being vectored to final" because Evora is uncontrolled and has no radar service. $\endgroup$
    – GapeN
    Commented Feb 10 at 3:56

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