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How are squall lines created and what are they exactly? If we encounter them how we deal with them?

I know that it is a narrow band of thunderstorms that is moving, but is there any other weather phenomena associated with it or no?

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Thunderstorms can be associated with frontal weather movements, or can just form randomly away from frontal action by local convective activity.

A squall line is an array of thunderstorms triggered by uplift related to frontal movements instead of just randomly forming in a large air mass, basically in a line that is parallel, and in advance of, the cold front.

So the bottom line is, away from frontal conditions with a humid air mass and lots of sun, you can expect thunderstorms to form more or less randomly within the warm airmass. But when there is frontal activity where a cold front is advancing, you can anticipate multiple thunderstorms to form on the warm side of the front like a big commercial broom; a squall line.

As far as staying out of trouble and for flight planning, it might be possible to get from A to B VFR, where there are random thunderstorms not associated with a cold front, if the visibility is good enough to see the storms from a safe distance and they can be bypassed while maintaining good VFR conditions and staying at least 20 miles from the edge of the storm.

To be safe you need to have plenty of reserve fuel for diversions, and be ready to head for the hills if things aren't looking good. A hazy day with only 5 miles visibility and random cells lurking? You won't find me out there without weather radar in the plane.

And if you're planning to go from A to B, and there is front moving across your path, with lots of humidity and instability on the warm side, and you need to get across it, you can expect squall lines and you will be sitting on the ground until the front has passed and your trip is fully within the cold side.

It's always a good idea to be totally terrified of thunderstorms, and act accordingly, because the terror is justified.

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Squall lines are just as you say, bands of thunderstorms moving in the same general direction. They are formed by convective activity, that is the sun heating the earth, which heats moist air which rises high into the atmosphere to form clouds.

As for other weather phenomena, tornadoes are relatively common in some areas as is hail.

As for how you deal with them you avoid them in light aircraft as they are hazardous. Even without the tornadoes and hail squall lines have high winds, wind shear and turbulence. Airplanes with weather radar and anti-icing may be able to find a way through, although caution is still required.

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    $\begingroup$ Find their way through, or, preferably above or around. $\endgroup$
    – FreeMan
    Jan 30 at 17:47

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