I don't go to school for aviation, just a hobby/interest of mine. Would like to learn about things like vortices, flow patterns, pitch stability, effects of wing planform, and any other related stuff. Preferably around 100$ give or take, from the prices that I've seen. Thanks!
In the old days, all of these topics would be in the same book. Most modern books (even at the undergrad level) are pretty specialized. I.e. an aerodynamics book won't get into stability and control or aircraft performance.
Aerodynamics for Naval Aviators by H. H. Hurt Jr.. Available as a free download from the FAA. Not super rigorous (i.e. not full of equations and derivations). It is the standard for teaching pilots just enough about the airplane that they can get by. Also available as an inexpensive paperback if you like to read paper books.
Engineering Analysis of Flight Vehicles by Holt Ashley Available as an inexpensive Dover book. One of the more modern books that cover the breadth of topics you're asking for.
Theory of Flight by von Mises One of the old classics. A good example of what aeronautics books were like pre-war. Also an inexpensive Dover book.
Airplane Performance, Stability, and Control by Perkins and Hage This one is from 1949 and is not readily available today. However, it pretty much set the standard for modern performance and S&C books. Most current books owe a lot to Perkins and Hage. Keep an eye out and buy a cheap used copy on eBay if you can.