Early propellers were made from wood and they still are on some vintage/classic aircraft and reproductions. What types of wood are typically used to make wooden propellers?
Historically, the following woods were used:
Almost all wooden propellers are reinforced to add strength. Fabric or metal coverings can be added too.
Propellers should be made from the same type of wood as wing spars: In both cases the requirements are the same, and the wood should have the highest strength to mass ratio. Both need to be light and strong, especially in tension in the case of propellers. However, using a hardwood will help with their resistance against nicks and scratches, so for the highest loadings, hickory, maple and oak are good candidates. Spars use softwood like pine or nordic spruce (wood from higher latitudes grows more slowly and has better strength) which are less often used for propellers. Historically a wide variety of materials has been used.
Culver Props selects maple for the highest strength and otherwise birch. Mahogany and cherry are selected for the looks.
Equally important is the glueing from laminated planks and shaping. The craftsmen at the worlds first propeller company, Chauvière, were first in the business of making toilet seats. Switching to propellers came naturally. Laminating helps to control the density of the wood planks and makes it easier to cut out imperfections, so laminated propellers are better balanced and will be 25% lighter because less allowance has to be made to account for imperfections.
I would assume that hardwoods (birch, maple, oak, etc.) are favored over something like pine or spruce that would be easily dented in operation if the propeller kicks up rocks on the ground, though I can't find a good reference on that.