On ASA’s ATP test book they mention the following: “V1 is computed using the actual airplane gross weight, flap setting, pressure altitude and temperature.” I understand that v1 gets adjusted for slope and winds too but they didn’t mention anything about Vr and V2.

Is my conclusion right? v1 vr and v2 are computed using the aircraft’s weight, flap setting, temperature, and pressure altitude. The difference is that V1 gets adjusted for winds and slope, and vr v2 don’t.

Thank you!


1 Answer 1


That's correct.

V1 has to do with acceleration and stopping, and both of those are affected by headwind/tailwind and runway slope.

VR is the (air) speed at which you want to start flying, and so head/tailwind won't change that speed (although it will change the groundspeed you're moving when you rotate). And runway slope won't affect this speed either.

V2 is a climb speed, so it happens in an airmass, and isn't affected by what the ground below is doing, neither in terms of slope nor wind (i.e. the difference of a moving airmass vs a stationary airmass).

The exception to all of this... enhanced climb. This is a bit of an advanced topic, where you use more runway to get moving faster, and then your climb performance airborne is better than it would have been. In this case, the performance engineers compute a higher than normal VR. With ample runway, your V1 can go up to match VR, and the V2 speed is (somewhat artificially) raised to be a few knots above VR. And because of all the computations involved, all of these can be affected by winds & slope.

But: for a straightforward understanding of V1, VR, and V2, it's safe to say that only V1 is affected by winds and runway slope.


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