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3 Removed section elaborating Impact Lift

To understand the formation of wing-tip vortices, and how that leads to wake turbulence, we must first understand how the wings of an aircraft generate lift. Lift is created in two ways simultaneously:

• Impact Lift
• Pressure Differential (Bernoulli's principle)

## Impact Lift

Impact lift is the lift that is created by the impact of air molecules upon striking a surface (a wing in this case). This can be best understood by sticking our hand out of the window of a fast-moving car, palm-side down. There is relatively no wind-resistance and the hand can tear through the wind with ease...

Now, slightly rotate the palm forward a few degrees - and almost immediately the hand will want to go up and slightly back too! The increase in resistance is because the effective surface area of impact has increased, leading to more number of air molecules colliding with the larger (relatively) surface area. This is called Impact Lift.

Impact Lift creates a little drag, and that along with the fact that the lift created isn't ample means that the lift due to Pressure Differential also comes into play...

## Lift due to Pressure Differential

This form of lift works according to the Bernoulli's Principle; the basic idea is that fast moving air creates low pressure. This is where the structure of the wing becomes important - the wing is not just a sheet of metal, but is a special structure, that creates low-pressure on its top-side, creating the necessary lift along with Impact lift. This is can be clearly understood with the help of an image:

The upper sidesurface of the wing is slightly curved, in order to increase the distance of travel before reaching the trailing-edge, and to. To keep up with the air molecules onright below the bottom side -wing, they increase their speed. A low pressure forms due to the increase in speed, and therefore the relatively high pressure underneath the wings, pushes the wing (and therefore the whole aircraft) upwardslow pressure duly forms right above the wing, and therefore the relatively high pressure underneath the wings, pushes the wing (and therefore the whole aircraft) upwards. This is can be clearly understood with the help of an image:

## Wing-tip vortices

A wing's lift is primarily created by the pressure differential between the lower and the upper surfaces of the wing. Air molecules underneath are already under pressure, and those close to the wing-tip escape around the wing and make their way outwards, upwards, and inwards, creating wing-tip vortices.

The wing-lets on many modern airliners also serve the purpose of somewhat preventing the formation of wing-tip vortices, by not letting the air molecules spiral in, after escaping from under the wing.

## Wake Turbulence

Wake TurbulenceWake Turbulence is a disturbance in the atmosphere that forms behind an aircraft as it passes through the air. It includes various components, the most important of which are wingtip vortices and jetwash.

So wake turbulence is nothing but atmospheric disturbance caused by wing-tip vortices and to a smaller extent, jet engine exhaust.

EDIT: Removed section elaborating Impact Lift, as no such thing exists - Courtesy of Peter Kämpf

To understand the formation of wing-tip vortices, and how that leads to wake turbulence, we must first understand how the wings of an aircraft generate lift. Lift is created in two ways simultaneously:

• Impact Lift
• Pressure Differential (Bernoulli's principle)

## Impact Lift

Impact lift is the lift that is created by the impact of air molecules upon striking a surface (a wing in this case). This can be best understood by sticking our hand out of the window of a fast-moving car, palm-side down. There is relatively no wind-resistance and the hand can tear through the wind with ease...

Now, slightly rotate the palm forward a few degrees - and almost immediately the hand will want to go up and slightly back too! The increase in resistance is because the effective surface area of impact has increased, leading to more number of air molecules colliding with the larger (relatively) surface area. This is called Impact Lift.

Impact Lift creates a little drag, and that along with the fact that the lift created isn't ample means that the lift due to Pressure Differential also comes into play...

## Lift due to Pressure Differential

This form of lift works according to the Bernoulli's Principle; the basic idea is that fast moving air creates low pressure. This is where the structure of the wing becomes important - the wing is not just a sheet of metal, but is a special structure, that creates low-pressure on its top-side, creating the necessary lift along with Impact lift. This is can be clearly understood with the help of an image:

The upper side of the wing is slightly curved, to increase the distance of travel before reaching the trailing-edge, and to keep up with the air molecules on the bottom side - they increase their speed. A low pressure forms due to the increase in speed, and therefore the relatively high pressure underneath the wings, pushes the wing (and therefore the whole aircraft) upwards.

## Wing-tip vortices

A wing's lift is primarily created by the pressure differential between the lower and the upper surfaces of the wing. Air molecules underneath are already under pressure, and those close to the wing-tip escape around the wing and make their way outwards, upwards, and inwards, creating wing-tip vortices. The wing-lets on many modern airliners also serve the purpose of somewhat preventing the formation of wing-tip vortices, by not letting the air molecules spiral in, after escaping from under the wing.

## Wake Turbulence

Wake Turbulence is a disturbance in the atmosphere that forms behind an aircraft as it passes through the air. It includes various components, the most important of which are wingtip vortices and jetwash.

So wake turbulence is nothing but atmospheric disturbance caused by wing-tip vortices and to a smaller extent, jet engine exhaust.

To understand the formation of wing-tip vortices, and how that leads to wake turbulence, we must first understand how the wings of an aircraft generate lift.

## Lift due to Pressure Differential

This form of lift works according to the Bernoulli's Principle; the basic idea is that fast moving air creates low pressure. This is where the structure of the wing becomes important.

The upper surface of the wing is slightly curved, in order to increase the distance of travel before reaching the trailing-edge. To keep up with the air molecules right below the wing, they increase their speed. A low pressure duly forms right above the wing, and therefore the relatively high pressure underneath the wings, pushes the wing (and therefore the whole aircraft) upwards. This is can be clearly understood with the help of an image:

## Wing-tip vortices

A wing's lift is primarily created by the pressure differential between the lower and the upper surfaces of the wing. Air molecules underneath are already under pressure, and those close to the wing-tip escape around the wing and make their way outwards, upwards, and inwards, creating wing-tip vortices.

The wing-lets on many modern airliners also serve the purpose of somewhat preventing the formation of wing-tip vortices, by not letting the air molecules spiral in, after escaping from under the wing.

## Wake Turbulence

Wake Turbulence is a disturbance in the atmosphere that forms behind an aircraft as it passes through the air. It includes various components, the most important of which are wingtip vortices and jetwash.

So wake turbulence is nothing but atmospheric disturbance caused by wing-tip vortices and to a smaller extent, jet engine exhaust.

EDIT: Removed section elaborating Impact Lift, as no such thing exists - Courtesy of Peter Kämpf

To understand the formation of wing-tip vortices, and how that leads to wake turbulence, we must first understand how the wings of an aircraft generate lift. Lift is created in two ways simultaneously:

• Impact Lift
• Pressure Differential (Bernoulli's principle)

## Impact Lift

Impact lift is the lift that is created by the impact of air molecules upon striking a surface (a wing in this case). This can be best understood by sticking our hand out of the window of a fast-moving car, palm-side down. There is relatively no wind-resistance and the hand can tear through the wind with ease...

Now, slightly rotate the palm forward a few degrees - and almost immediately the hand will want to go up and slightly back too! The increase in resistance is because the effective surface area of impact has increased, leading to more number of air molecules colliding with the larger (relatively) surface area. This is called Impact Lift.

Impact Lift creates a little drag, and that along with the fact that the lift created isn't ample means that the lift due to Pressure Differential also comes into play...

## Lift due to Pressure Differential

This form of lift works according to the Bernoulli's Principle; the basic idea is that fast moving air creates low pressure. This is where the structure of the wing becomes important - the wing is not just a sheet of metal, but is a special structure, that creates low-pressure on its top-side, creating the necessary lift along with Impact lift. This is can be clearly understood with the help of an image:

The upper side of the wing is slightly curved, to increase the distance of travel before reaching the trailing-edge, and to keep up with the air molecules on the bottom side - they increase their speed. A low pressure forms due to the increase in speed, and therefore the relatively high pressure underneath the wings, pushes the wing (and therefore the whole aircraft) upwards.

## Wing-tip vortices

A wing's lift is primarily created by the pressure differential between the lower and the upper surfaces of the wing. Air molecules underneath are already under pressure, and those close to the wing-tip escape around the wing and make their way outwards, upwards, and inwards, creating wing-tip vortices. The wing-lets on many modern airliners also serve the purpose of somewhat preventing the formation of wing-tip vortices, by not letting the air molecules spiral in, after escaping from under the wing.

## Wake Turbulence

Wake turbulenceWake Turbulence is a disturbance in the atmosphere that forms behind an aircraft as it passes through the air. It includes various components, the most important of which are wingtip vortices and jetwash. (Wikipedia)

So wake turbulence is nothing but atmospheric disturbance caused by wing-tip vortices and to a smaller extent, jet engine exhaust.

To understand the formation of wing-tip vortices, and how that leads to wake turbulence, we must first understand how the wings of an aircraft generate lift. Lift is created in two ways simultaneously:

• Impact Lift
• Pressure Differential (Bernoulli's principle)

## Impact Lift

Impact lift is the lift that is created by the impact of air molecules upon striking a surface (a wing in this case). This can be best understood by sticking our hand out of the window of a fast-moving car, palm-side down. There is relatively no wind-resistance and the hand can tear through the wind with ease...

Now, slightly rotate the palm forward a few degrees - and almost immediately the hand will want to go up and slightly back too! The increase in resistance is because the effective surface area of impact has increased, leading to more number of air molecules colliding with the larger (relatively) surface area. This is called Impact Lift.

Impact Lift creates a little drag, and that along with the fact that the lift created isn't ample means that the lift due to Pressure Differential also comes into play...

## Lift due to Pressure Differential

This form of lift works according to the Bernoulli's Principle; the basic idea is that fast moving air creates low pressure. This is where the structure of the wing becomes important - the wing is not just a sheet of metal, but is a special structure, that creates low-pressure on its top-side, creating the necessary lift along with Impact lift. This is can be clearly understood with the help of an image:

The upper side of the wing is slightly curved, to increase the distance of travel before reaching the trailing-edge, and to keep up with the air molecules on the bottom side - they increase their speed. A low pressure forms due to the increase in speed, and therefore the relatively high pressure underneath the wings, pushes the wing (and therefore the whole aircraft) upwards.

## Wing-tip vortices

A wing's lift is primarily created by the pressure differential between the lower and the upper surfaces of the wing. Air molecules underneath are already under pressure, and those close to the wing-tip escape around the wing and make their way outwards, upwards, and inwards, creating wing-tip vortices.

## Wake Turbulence

Wake turbulence is a disturbance in the atmosphere that forms behind an aircraft as it passes through the air. It includes various components, the most important of which are wingtip vortices and jetwash. (Wikipedia)

So wake turbulence is nothing but atmospheric disturbance caused by wing-tip vortices and to a smaller extent, jet engine exhaust.

To understand the formation of wing-tip vortices, and how that leads to wake turbulence, we must first understand how the wings of an aircraft generate lift. Lift is created in two ways simultaneously:

• Impact Lift
• Pressure Differential (Bernoulli's principle)

## Impact Lift

Impact lift is the lift that is created by the impact of air molecules upon striking a surface (a wing in this case). This can be best understood by sticking our hand out of the window of a fast-moving car, palm-side down. There is relatively no wind-resistance and the hand can tear through the wind with ease...

Now, slightly rotate the palm forward a few degrees - and almost immediately the hand will want to go up and slightly back too! The increase in resistance is because the effective surface area of impact has increased, leading to more number of air molecules colliding with the larger (relatively) surface area. This is called Impact Lift.

Impact Lift creates a little drag, and that along with the fact that the lift created isn't ample means that the lift due to Pressure Differential also comes into play...

## Lift due to Pressure Differential

This form of lift works according to the Bernoulli's Principle; the basic idea is that fast moving air creates low pressure. This is where the structure of the wing becomes important - the wing is not just a sheet of metal, but is a special structure, that creates low-pressure on its top-side, creating the necessary lift along with Impact lift. This is can be clearly understood with the help of an image:

The upper side of the wing is slightly curved, to increase the distance of travel before reaching the trailing-edge, and to keep up with the air molecules on the bottom side - they increase their speed. A low pressure forms due to the increase in speed, and therefore the relatively high pressure underneath the wings, pushes the wing (and therefore the whole aircraft) upwards.

## Wing-tip vortices

A wing's lift is primarily created by the pressure differential between the lower and the upper surfaces of the wing. Air molecules underneath are already under pressure, and those close to the wing-tip escape around the wing and make their way outwards, upwards, and inwards, creating wing-tip vortices. The wing-lets on many modern airliners also serve the purpose of somewhat preventing the formation of wing-tip vortices, by not letting the air molecules spiral in, after escaping from under the wing.

## Wake Turbulence

Wake Turbulence is a disturbance in the atmosphere that forms behind an aircraft as it passes through the air. It includes various components, the most important of which are wingtip vortices and jetwash.

So wake turbulence is nothing but atmospheric disturbance caused by wing-tip vortices and to a smaller extent, jet engine exhaust.

1

To understand the formation of wing-tip vortices, and how that leads to wake turbulence, we must first understand how the wings of an aircraft generate lift. Lift is created in two ways simultaneously:

• Impact Lift
• Pressure Differential (Bernoulli's principle)

## Impact Lift

Impact lift is the lift that is created by the impact of air molecules upon striking a surface (a wing in this case). This can be best understood by sticking our hand out of the window of a fast-moving car, palm-side down. There is relatively no wind-resistance and the hand can tear through the wind with ease...

Now, slightly rotate the palm forward a few degrees - and almost immediately the hand will want to go up and slightly back too! The increase in resistance is because the effective surface area of impact has increased, leading to more number of air molecules colliding with the larger (relatively) surface area. This is called Impact Lift.

Impact Lift creates a little drag, and that along with the fact that the lift created isn't ample means that the lift due to Pressure Differential also comes into play...

## Lift due to Pressure Differential

This form of lift works according to the Bernoulli's Principle; the basic idea is that fast moving air creates low pressure. This is where the structure of the wing becomes important - the wing is not just a sheet of metal, but is a special structure, that creates low-pressure on its top-side, creating the necessary lift along with Impact lift. This is can be clearly understood with the help of an image:

The upper side of the wing is slightly curved, to increase the distance of travel before reaching the trailing-edge, and to keep up with the air molecules on the bottom side - they increase their speed. A low pressure forms due to the increase in speed, and therefore the relatively high pressure underneath the wings, pushes the wing (and therefore the whole aircraft) upwards.

## Wing-tip vortices

A wing's lift is primarily created by the pressure differential between the lower and the upper surfaces of the wing. Air molecules underneath are already under pressure, and those close to the wing-tip escape around the wing and make their way outwards, upwards, and inwards, creating wing-tip vortices.

## Wake Turbulence

Wake turbulence is a disturbance in the atmosphere that forms behind an aircraft as it passes through the air. It includes various components, the most important of which are wingtip vortices and jetwash. (Wikipedia)

So wake turbulence is nothing but atmospheric disturbance caused by wing-tip vortices and to a smaller extent, jet engine exhaust.