I begin with the premise that there are generally 3 different types of anti-aircraft missile systems. These are
(a) Man-Portable Air-Defense System (MANPADS) also called Very Short Range Air Defense Systems(VSHORADS) for example RBS-70 , Verba , Starstreak ,
(b) Ground based Medium-Range Surface-to-air missile systems for example BUK-3 and
(c) Long Range Air Defense Systems for example Patriot MIM-104 and S-300V.
Now , the testing of these 3 different types are obviously different , however the cornerstone of these tests regardless of the type would include :
(a) Digital Simulation of launches - almost a million launches are simulated ;
(b) Hardware-in-the-loop simulations – thousands of tests for each system
with actual missile seekers and jammers
(c) Flight Tests simulation
(d) Functional configuration audit to verify compliance with system functional requirements
(e) Live Fire tests - carried out on unmanned aerial vehicles that serves as targets
There are generally 3 main parts in a missile .
(1) The rear section contains electronic packages , a battery and the rudder mechanism
(2) The central section contains the sustained motor and wings
(3) The forward section contains electronic packages , the gyro and warhead
Therefore , Tests have to be conducted at the component, subsystem, or system level as well .
Missile Sub sections
Countermeasures for air defense systems are categorized into active and passive systems.
(1) Active countermeasures are for example flares and directed infrared countermeasures (DIRCM)
(2) Passive countermeasures include infrared signature reduction, fuel tank inerting and redundant controls
Tests are carried out for Flares , Chaffs and Infrared .
The chaff cuts are tested for optimization so as to provide a broadband radar return .
The various tests carried out on Chaffs are related to their Performance Requirements shown in the image below
A Flare consists of (1) a firing cap, (2) a powder charge wadding between the charge and the bullet, and (3) a wad at the end that keeps everything in place. The electrical firing “cap” creates a gas that ejects the plastic or nylon slider, 2 felt spacers that hold everything in place, and the end cap. All these 3 components have to be tested .
For evaluation of effectiveness against two-color systems, an integrated color ratio filter system is used to enable flares and target representation to contain the appropriate
amount of energy in each spectral region of interest .