RWR Radar warning receivers can help detect if the aircraft is being tracked by a targeting radar and if the incoming missile is an active type, it is possible for RWR to detect this as well. There are counters to this such as frequency hopping and spread spectrum radar, so it is also possible that the targeted aircraft remains unaware.
Aircraft can be fitted with launch plume detectors which sense the IR or UV from a missile, either at launch or during flight, these again are not foolproof.
With respect to jamming - consider the home on jam (HOJ) technologies, where the incoming missile uses the jamming emitter as it's target, making the jamming vehicle vulnerable to attack, several missile systems employ HOJ, such as the A-88 HARM and the AIM-120 AMRAM.
Whether any aircraft has the ability to evade a missile depends on many variables, but mainly boils down to how much energy the incoming missile has i.e. burn time on the propellant or kinetic energy if the propellant is exhausted and the same for the aircraft, hight, speed, thrust and the manoeuvring envelops for the two, which means radius of turn, amount of G, sustained G. Civil airliners don't really have high G capabilities, if the pilot were to spot the missile early and the distance was great, turning and running in a shallow dive with a max G turn just before impact might, if the missile has very low energy, work, but these systems have a very good probability of kill against large targets with relatively poor manoeuvrability.