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Take Afghanistan as a for instance; do governments (e.g. USAF/RAF) or NATO construct ATC towers?

I'd imagine so, at the air bases, in order to land/takeoff the vast amount of aircraft.

Who controls the sectors where missions are ongoing? How are the different countries' aircraft coordinated and kept apart?

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Yes, sometimes control towers or other ATC facilities are constructed to support air traffic control. If, for example an ATC tower is needed (there was none previously or it was destroyed), a mobile replacement is used.

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For mission control Airborne Warning and Control Systems (AWACS) are used:

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But these are quite expensive to fly. If possible, mobile surface based radars are brought in to provide a surveillance picture.

Mobile towers, radars and navigation beacon are not solely used in war situations. In natural disasters they have proven to be useful as well:

FAA sends temporary Air Traffic Control tower to Haiti

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